Archive / Papers / Penny Papers


Given by Sir James Penny, K.C.I.E., C.S.I.

Punjab: 1910-1945

  1. TS autobiography: ‘Punjab Memories, 1910-1945’, written 1971
    • Ch.1 – Jhelum, Ferozeporre 1910-12. Early days of young I.C.S. learning work, and first impressions. Goes out with J.D. Anderson. D.C. Jhelum Lt. Col. Fox-Strangeways. First hot weather, malaria. District Durbar to mark celebration of King George V’s Coronation. Ferozepore. Settlement training.
    • Ch.2 – Lyallpur 1912-13: Lower Chenab Canal – irrigation and settlement; European society in Lyallpur District.; Work as 1st Class Magistrate. Types of crime. Various characters.
    • Ch.3 – Saragodha 1913 also Sakesar.; Sketches of Punjab individuals and D.Cs. etc.; >Lahore 1913-1914 for judicial. training. Riding and hunting; Becomes Assistant to Registrar of Co-operative Societies; Goes on leave just before outbreak of World War I; Returns to Lahore in late August 1914.
    • Ch.4 – First part of World War I: Lahore.- Life in chummer; Personal Assistant to the D.C. Lahore, H.P. Tollinton; Montgomery Jail – Appointed Superintendent April 1914 of Central Jail. Description of his work there. Problem of detainees. Goes to Mussorie on leave.
    • Ch.5 – S.D.O. Rajanpur 1915-16. Political Assistant Dera Ghazi Khan 1916-17. Brief discourse on Baluchis. Journey from Simla to Rajanpur. Description of Rajanpur and work there. A criminal case and how hal works. Friendship with Indians. Medical leave in Karachi. Returns to Dera Ghazi Khan as Political Assistant and Commandant Border Military Police. Hot weathers spent in Fort Munro. Life in very small hill station. Work of P.A. and B.M.P. Commandant. Description of jirgas. Bozdar tribe. Touring in the winter in Baluch hills. Return to D.G.K. Work there. Visits to southern posts and attends the Jacobabad Fair in Sind.Touring in the north. Back in Fort Munro. Skirmishes on the border. The harshness of the country. Transferred to Lahore in 1917 as Under Secretary, Revenue. Marriage.
    • Ch.6 – Last phase of World War I. Contrast of work in Secretariat.In 1918 in last phase of the war posted to 1/124th Baluchis in Montgomery. Sent to an Officers’ School of Instruction at Sabathu. Transferred to Intelligence Branch covering Persia, Afghanistan, Central Asia and the N.W. Frontier. Work in H.Q. Simla.
    • Ch.7 – 1919-20. Aftermath of War. 1919. Simla as Assistant Commissioner in charge of Hill States. Service almost immediately terminated by agitation due to Rowlatt Acts. Ordered to Gujranwal.a District to administer martial law. Rioting in Gujranwala and in the District.. Sent to Sheikhupura as assistant to difficult man. Cases connected with looting. Appointed Deputy Commissioner of Lyallpur for two weeks. Retained as Assistant D.C. Lyallpur. Difficulties created by Hunter Commission in re-establishing friendly relations. Result of 1919 disturbances in relationships. Posted as D.C. to Montgomery. Description of town and district. On leave 1920 for six months.
    • Ch.8 – Lyallpur Settlement 1920-24. Appointed Under Secretary Simla for short time before being posted as Settlement Officer Lyallpur. Assistant – Sheikh Nur Mohammad. Work as Settlement Officer. Land grants to military men and proprietary rights to Camel Service grantees.
    • Ch.9 – 1925-27. Senior Secretary to Financial Commissioners. Deputy Secretary, Government of India. Description of Deputy Secretary’s work – Results of Dyarchical Constitution. Attends assemblies of Legislative and the meetings of Governor’s Council. Sketches of various Indian members. Work on Amendment of the Punjab Land Revenue Act. Changes in Lahore. Appointed Deputy Secretary, Commerce Department, Government of India for 4 months. Department in process of implementing a policy of discriminatory protection. Subsequently appointed Deputy Secretary in Finance Department, Delhi, but only holds it for a short time. Appointed Finance Secretary, Punjab.
    • Ch.10 – Finance Secretary, Punjab, 1927-1930. Rapid changes in personnel during the period. Work of the Finance Secretary. Visit of Simon Commission. Sees Uhl Hydro-Electric project being constructed.
    • Ch.11 – Gurdaspur, 1932-1934. Posted D.C. (during time of 10% cut in pay). Has two months as Temporary D.C. Amritsar. Turbulent behaviour of Akali Sikhs. 1932 takes over charge of Gurdaspur District. Brief description of town, European and Indian community, and type of work and incident there. Description of Batala and Qadian (centre of Ahmadi sect of Muslims). Brief descriptions of other Tahsils. Note on disjointed time in Gurdaspur.
    • Ch.12 – Commissioner – successively in 4 Divisions. 1932 – Rawalpindi. Sent to officiate temporarily for Malcolm Darling for 3 months, as Commissioner. Work of a Commissioner. Tours districts, D.C. Sialkot and other odd jobs until October 1933 when returns to Gurdaspur. February 1934 appointed Commissioner at Multan – remarks about his bearers. February 1934-March 1935 Commissioner Multan. Tours and sees changes in Lyallpur and Montgomery (Sutlej Valley Canal Project), Jhang and Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan and Fort Munro. Note on tumandars and Jirga system 935-1936. Commissioner Lahore. Changes in social life. 1936-1937. Commissioner Rawalpindi. Muslim-Sikh troubles. Rioting in city dealt with. Trouble also in Attock District. Incidents of life in Rawalpindi. Social position of the Commissioner there. Plans for hot weather tour interrupted by offer of post of Chief Secretary. Holiday in Kashmir.
    • Ch.13 – 1937-1939. Chief Secretary. Lahore: May 1937: Coronation Day in Simla. Work of launching the New Constitution – Council of Ministers. Recruitment to I.C.S. Viceroy’s Durbar in Lahore October 1937 – probably the last held. Governor: Emerson, followed by Sir Henry Craik – Swearing in of new Governor – Gubernatorial policy of Craik. Shortage of senior I.C.S. officers in Punjab at beginning of War. Goes on leave April 1939 until ordered to return August 1939 – Wartime voyage to India. Back in India returns to Lahore as Chief Secretary. Punjab in Wartime. Appearance of private armies. Khaksar movement. March of the Khaksars and its results. I.C.S. recruitment and deployment in Wartime. 1941 Sir Bertrand Glancy appointed Governor of Punjab. Move to Simla. Cars and bicycles allowed for first time on road between Mashobra and Simla. Problem of building an abattoir near Lahore.
    • Ch.14 – Financial Commissioner (Development) 1941-45. Maki 1944. Work on Thal Canal. Official duties until 1945 – brief statement of.
    • Epilogue – January-April 1945. After retirement, tour of Southern India. Brief stay in Delhi. Return finally to England after 35 years and 4 months’ service.