Archive / Papers / Orange Papers: Box 1


Sir Hugh Orange K.B.I., C.B., C.I.E.

India general: 1902 – 1907

Given by Andrew Orange (grandson)

Sir Hugh Orange was the first Director General of Education in India based in Simla. The papers cover the years 1902-1907. The seven typewritten folders give a concise picture of his first years in India. There are many brief references to Lord Curzon throughout the letters. He mentions by name everyone he meets, also the official postings in Simla, but seldom touches on any of his work in education.

The first two folders are his introductory notes to the letters written in 1942 to his parents, and give a table of contents listing subjects and people most encountered and with whom he worked. At the beginning of each of the folders and where his cold weather tours occurred will be found a synopsis of the contents of the letters and an itinerary of the tours, dates and the houses he stayed in. He mentioned that he has omitted all “comments on controversial matters such as the retirement of Sir J. Bampfylde Fuller”.

    1. Folder I:
      • Notes on Lord Curzon, Sir Power Palmer, Lord Kitchener, Sir Denzil and Lady Ibbetson, Sir Edmond Ellis, General C.H. Scott, John Prescott Hewett, Sir H. Risley, Sir Walter Lawrence, H.W. Carnduff, J.O. Miller, R. Nathan, Col. Sir J. Dunlop Smith. 51 ff.
    2. Folder 2:
      • Notes on Sir Harold A. Stuart, General Bomford, Sir John Marshall, Sir Charles Rivaz, Bishop George Lefroy, E.D. Maclagan, W. Bell – he talks of the military people in Simla and comments on the housing sites of the Punjab Government there; from education: C. W. Waddington of the Mayo College, A.J. Mere, Lt. Gen. Sir E. de V. Atkinson of the Thomason Engineering College, Rurki; Sir E. Denison Ross of the Calcutta Madrasah; Rev. A.H. Hildersley of the Lawrence Military Asylum, Sanawar; Theodore Morison of the M.A.O. College, Aligarh and several teachers who worked at Auckland House in Calcutta in 1902-08. Mr A.M. Ker of the Alliance Bank in Simla. Various comments on three journalists and Mrs Everard Cotes, E.J. Buck as Reuters agent and H. Hensman of The Pioneer. Count Starnberg, German Consul General. Comments on the Universities Commission 1902, on various policy reforms concerned with education under Lord Curzon and in that connection an interview with the French enquirer, M. Chailley Bert. The formation of the Bureau of Education. He passes comments and gives his views on the social life in Simla. His tours were from November to March in each year when he covered all of the nine provinces except 1905-6 owing to illness, 68 ff.
    3. Folder 3:
      1. June – October 1902 resident in Simla; October 1902 – April 1903 touring to the following places: Umballa, Rurki, Aligarh, Agra, Sihora, Jubbulpore, Nagpur, Raipur, Calcutta, Bankipur, Delhi, Bombay, Lahore, Amritsar, Jullunder.Detailed description of the letters:1902
        1. 9 June Galway House, Simla. Finishing of the University Commission’s Report. Lord Curzon’s critical remark to Mr Giles, Director of Public Instruction of Bombay. Comments further on Lord Curzon. ff 7-11.
        2. 16 June Names those on the Universities Commission. Quotation from Lord Curzon’s Convocation. Speech of 15 February on education. ff 11-15.
        3. 22 June Meets a Mr Marshall who comments on the Anglo-Indians. Eton-Winchester dinner. ff 15-20.
        4. 29 June Details of a tea-party at Galway House. Dines with the Latimers; he is assistant Private Secretary to Lord Curzon: speaks of the Viceroy and Lord Lytton. State Ball – description: ff 20-4.
        5. 9 July Comments on John Hewett about to be Commissioner in the Central Provinces. ff 25-7.
        6. 15 July Redecorating Galway House and has ping-pong table made. Visits Auckland House School. ff 27-30.
        7. 23 July Describes dinner at Viceregal Lodge. ff 30-3.
        8. 31 July Dines at Baines Court with the Lt. Governor and Lady Rivaz. ff 22-6.
        9. 7 August Acquires small office and temporary staff at The Rookery, Jakko. Preparing a draft for a policy resolution dealing with education. Describes dance floor at Barnes Court, ëswung on chainsí designed by Rudyard Kipling’s father. ff 36-8.
        10. 13 August Meets Mrs Risley, German, taught Lord Lytton’s children. ff 39-41.
        11. 18 August Hears part of Lord Curzon’s letter offering Risley the post of Home Secretary. Military disappointed that Sir Power Palmer will have to leave India before the durbar to make way for Kitchener. Tennis. ff 41-4.
        12. 31 August Reference to Gorst. ff 48-50.
        13. 7 September Visits the Lawrence Military Asylum in Sanawar with Mr Bell, Director of Public Instruction in the Punjab. Over 500 children. The Rev. A.H. Hildesley, the Principal, been there 19 years and does not wish to leave. Orange comments on this as a rare thing for India. Describes visit. A note on Hildesley and family. ff 50-4.
        14. 16 September Visits the Roman Catholic Convent of the Order of Jesus and Mary. Impressed with the way the nuns arrange the marriages of their pupils. ff 54-7.
        15. 21 September Dines at the Ibbetsons to meet. the Viceroy – a party of 20, all are named and brief comments given. Lady Elles consulted an Indian thought reader over the loss of a valuable piece. Mentions L. Mercer and J.B. Wood, and Sir Hugh Barnes. ff 57-61.
        16. 28 September Mr Jacob’s house is for sale. Jacob being ‘Mr Isaac’ in Marion Crawford’s book and ‘Mr Lurgan’ in Kim. Hears about Jacob from auctioneer’s wife. A reference to Lord Roberts when on a visit to the Convent school. ff 61-4.
        17. 5 October Refers to H.A. Stuart who is living with him for two weeks. A quote from Lord Curzon. ff 65-8.
        18. 14 October Masked Ball postponed owing to the death of Captain Mallaby, brother in law of Lady Barnes. A visit from Sir Andrew Fraser. Sees a Bengali adaptation of Hamlet -women in purdah there. ff 68-71.
          Cold weather tour 1902/3 synopsis of activities, dates, places etc. ff 78-80.
          Holders of the principal official posts in the places he visited. f 81.
          5 November Agra, Aligarh School; details of visit. ff 82-4.
        19. 13 November Jubbulpore, Country schools – with Inspector Sharp. Detailed description. ff 84-5.
        20. 20 November Nagpur, Stays with Hewett, Chief Commissioner, and Mr Monro, Director of Public Instruction. No fire-places in the house: ff 86-88.
        21. 26 November Camp at Nagpur – with Mr Mitchell, an Inspector of Schools – visit village schools; Paldi. Elected a member of Bengal Club. Visits a Chiefsí College with Newett at Raipur. ff 88-91
        22. 3 December Calcutta. Impressed with village schools. In mourning for Sir John Woodburn. ff 91-3.
        23. 7 December Calcutta. Bengal Club. ff 93-4.
        24. 21 December Calcutta. Lord Curzon presents a marble monument recording the names of those who died in the ‘Black Hole’. Has been gazetted to having private entree to Government House. Says railway accommodation is good. ff 94-6.
        25. 30 December Delhi. Camp outside Cashmere Gate. Camps stretch for seven to eight miles. Describes Durbar processions. Comments on Lord Kitchener as lacking in grace and spontaneity. ff 96-9.


        1. 6 January Exhaustion over the investiture. 10,000 – 12,000 at Durbar but could hear Viceroy’s speech and the Bishop of Lahore’s speech clearly. Duke of Connaught greeted enthusiastically. ff 99-102.
        2. 14 January Byculla Club, Bombay. 3,000 at State Ball in Delhi. Comments on muted enthusiasm that greeted Lord Curzon. ff 102-4.
        3. 24 January Visits Poona and meets F.G. Selby, Director of Public Instruction. Visits the Governor, Lord Northcote, also Mr Fulton, Sir J. Monteath. ff 105-6.
        4. 27 January Ahmedabad. More on Bombay meetings. Visits the Chiefs of Kathiawar College at Rajkot. Principal is Waddington descriptive. ff 107-9.
        5. 4 February Bombay. Elphinstone College. Stayed in Indore with Mr C.S. Bayley. Brief comments on the Resident, Major Younghusband and family. Stayed in Ajmere with A.L.P. Tucker. Visited Chiefsí College – descriptive. ff 109-12.
        6. 8 February Government House, Madras, with Lord Ampthill. ff 112-14.
        7. 18 February Collector’s House, Madura. Also to Trichinopoly met R.H. Shipley, – Collector. ff 114-16.
        8. 25 February Madras. Meeting with missionaries – Rev. Dr Sell. ff 116-17.
        9. 10 March Lucknow. Stays with Sir James La Touche. ff 118-20.
        10. 18 March Lahore. Stays with W. Bell. Chiefs’ College – Eton boy from Hyderabad now there. ff 120-1.
        11. 25 March Lahore. Visits School of Art, Medical College. ff 122-3.
        12. 30 March Lahore. Recounts visit to Amritsar – stayed with Maclagan. Two visits to the Golden Temple. Reference to Lord Curzon. Comments on W. Bell – great difficulties of separated families while on service in India. ff 123-6.
    4. Folder 4:
      • April – November 1903 resident in Simla; October 1903 – April 1904 touring to the following places: Lahore, Ahmedabad, Bombay, Karachi, Calcutta, Rangoon, Moulmein, Ajmere, Darjeeling, Naini Tal, Mussoorie.Detailed description of the letters:1903
        1. 15 April Returns to newly decorated Galway House. New railway from Kalka to Simla almost completed. ff 3-5.
        2. 6 May Comments on C.W. Waddington newly installed as Principal of the Mayo College at Ajmere. ff 7-8.
        3. 14 May Daily lessons in Urdu. Visits Sir Denzil and Lady Ibbetson. Lord Curzon no longer seeing his secretaries regularly. ff 8-10.
        4. 17 May Brief comment on Lord Kitchener. ff 10-12.
        5. 24 May Gives his social diary for that week. More on Lord Kitchener. Comments on a report on Indian railway management. ff 12-15.
        6. 3 June Notes on Sadler. Conversation with Mr Latimer, permanent private secretary to Lord Curzon – great pressure on officers of Government. The Delhi medal. Meets again E.H. Elles from Calcutta. ff 15-18.
        7. 10 June Interest rates. ff 18-20.
        8. 14 June Conversation with Cotes – journalist – ardent advocate of fiscal revision for free trade within the Empire. ff 20-2.
        9. 30 June State Ball – Lord Kitchener. ff 24-6.
        10. 14 July Preparations for journey to Darjeeling; books to be read. ff 27-30.
        11. 28 July Darjeeling. At St Paul’s school. Details from a visit to a tea garden at Kurseong. Comments on the school. ff 30-2.
        12. 6 August Simla. Details of visit to a jute press belonging to Ralli brothers near Calcutta. ff 33-5.
        13. 12 August Entertains grandson of Sir Syed Ahmed who is being brought up by the Morisons at Aligarh. Conversation with Lord Curzon at a bal poudre at Viceregal Lodge – on education. Speculation on Curzon’s successor. Comments on Lord Ampthill. ff 35-40.
        14. 19 August Several deaths on the trains due to excessive heat. ff 40-2.
        15. 27 August Council meeting concerning forthcoming legislation on the Universities – those there including Curzon and subjects discussed. Note on Lord Newton and Curzon. ff 42-44.
        16. 1 September More on above meeting. Curzon not learnt Urdu. ff 44-6.
        17. 10 September Wishes to arrange a visit to Japan to report on their system of education which is viewed as successful. ff 46-8.
        18. 8 October Details of a visit to Thanedar with Syed Ross Mahsud and Ransome, Consulting Architect. Black bear hunting. ff 51-4.
        19. 15 October Comments on Mr Monro, Director of Public Instruction in the Central Provinces. ff 55-6.
        20. 22 October Comments on Lawrence, private secretary to Curzon. ff 56-8
        21. 29 October Dinner at Viceregal Lodge for Lawrence. Quote Curzon’s speech. ff 58-60.
        22. 5 November Gives brief account of the meeting of the Legislative Council to hear the Indian Universities’ Bill being introduced. ff 60-2.
        23. Brief synopsis of his cold weather tour 1903/4 – 10 November 21 April. ff 63-4.
        24. 22 November Ahmedabad. Describes visit, staying with F. Lely, Commissioner. ff 66-8.
        25. 11 December S.S. Dunra. Voyage to Mandalay. ff 70-4.
        26. 26 December Mandalay. Describes his visit, travelling with J. Van Someren Pope, D.P.I. in Burma. ff 75-8.
        27. 29 December Upper Burma Club, Mandalay – the old Palace of Theebaw and Supiyalet. ff 78-80.


        1. 13 January S.S. Bihara. Account of his visit to Pagan and the lacquer work. ff 80-4.
        2. 3 February Calcutta. Comments on the forthcoming Conference in Rajputana of Indian Chiefs to discuss with English political officers how they wish their sons to be brought up at the Colleges, Mr Sells to be tutor to the Maharajah of Patiala. ff 87-9.
        3. 24 February Calcutta. Foundations being dug for a large marble Hall to commemorate the Queen. Hears lecture by Sir William Emerson – the architect. ff 91-4.
        4. 17 March Ajmere. The Chiefs’ Conference – descriptive of those attending. ff 97-100.
        5. 24 March Calcutta. Comments on a Resolution which defines the government policy in regard to education. Feels the absence of domestic life, but is considering a further stay of ten years. ff 100-4