Orange Papers: Box 2

Sir Hugh Orange K.B.I., C.B., C.I.E.

India general: 1902 – 1907

Given by Andrew Orange

    1. Folder 5:
        • April – October 1904 resident in Simla; November 1904 – March 1905 touring to the following places: Lucknow, Allahabad, Rai Bareli, Pertabgarh, Sultanpur Districts, Fyzabad, Tanda, Bara Banki, Sitapur, Lakhimpur, Hardoi District, Bareilly, Benares, Calcutta, Dacca.Synopsis of letters from 27 April – 26 October 1904. Principal official posts in Simla.
          1. 27 April Simla: Travels up newly opened railway. Comments on the way in which Lord Curzon’s departure is different from other Viceroys. ff 3-5.
          2. 5 May Obtains new offices at Kennedy House. Describes the departure of Lord Curzon from Government House and later the ceremony where Lord Ampthill assumed office. ff 5-9.
          3. 12 May His ideas for a tour through Oudh. Living in a tent and studying village life. ff 9-10.
          4. 18 May Describes routine of his daily life. R. Nathan in bad health from over work. ff 10-13.
          5. 26 May More details of his proposed tour including equipment that will be required. ff 13-15.
          6. 8 June Surprised at gardener’s botanical knowledge. Introducing a new card indexing system in his office. ff 18-20.
          7. 13 July Comments that the quick turn over of postings are the weakest point in the governing system. ff 29-31.
          8. 11 August The seasonal life at Simla seems very repetitive. ff 35-6.
          9. 24 August Lord Curzon’s request for Nathan to be his private secretary on his return in October. Gives his servant money – two rupees – as contribution to a festival. Story about Lord Curzon at a farewell dinner – “a brilliant collection of blunders and left-handed compliments.”. ff 39-42.
          10. 8 September The acceptability of married men’s parties in Simla. ff 46-9.
          11. 22 September A few remarks on the education of the English children. The re-writing of some of the Oudh school books which are too erudite. ff 51-4.
          12. 28 September Lady Curzon’s ill health. ff 54-6.
          13. 5 October Meets the German Consul and his wife – Count and Countess Quadt. ff 56-8.
          14. 10 October Travels to Chail – summer residence of the Maharaja of Patiala. Comments on the amount of enteric in Simla and remarks on the difficulty of eliminating dirt from the household arrangements. ff 58-60.
          15. 19 October Remarks on a career in tea planting in Bengal. Describes his stay in the house of the Dunlop Smith’s at Chail. ff 60-3.
          16. 26 October Conversation with M. Chailley Bert of the School of Political Studies in Paris. The expanding of Simla – his thought to buy land and build and comments on the architecture. ff 63-7.
          17. Synopsis of cold weather tour. ff 68-9.
          18. 3 November Lucknow. Describes his equipment for his tour. Staying with Mr Sykes, Principal of La Martiniere College. Meets S.H. Butler, Secretary to Sir James La Touche. ff 70-2.
          19. 13 November Rai Bareli District. Camp life and details of the setting up. Describes an ‘At Home’ of two village schools. ff 76-9.
          20. 20 November Rai Bareli. Conversations with professional Indians on education. ff 79-84.
          21. 12 December – 7 February 1905. These pages give very good descriptions of his tour and general notes on the District Stations, and all aspects of village life and people encountered. ff 89-120.
        • 1905

          1. 28 February Benares. Meets Mrs Besant. Lord and Lady Curzon arrive in Calcutta (7 March). ff 120-1.
          2. 12 March Circuit House, Dacca. Describes dirty house. ff 123-5.
          3. Lord Newton’s note dated 11 February, on a speech delivered by Lord Curzon at Calcutta University on truthfulness which aroused much criticism from the Indians. ff 126-7.
        • Folder 6:
          • April – July 1905 resident in Simla; August 1905 touring to the following places: Poona, Ahmednagar, Kohlapur, Belgaum, Dharwar, Bijapur, Satara; September 1905 resident in Simla; October November 1905 on holiday in Cashmere; thence spent three months in Walker Hospital, Simla recuperating after appendicitis.Detailed description of the letters:
            1. 4 April Simla. Earthquake damage. Lord Curzon strikes querulous note in his speeches – felt deeply the attacks made on him by agitators. Meets Campbell in Intelligence Department, who walked from Peking to Simla. ff 4-6.
            2. 11 April More on damage from the earthquake. Strait’s house for sale for 80,000 Rps. ff 7-10.
            3. 18 April Survey of his newly acquired land. ff 10-12.
            4. 24 April Brief comment on report of Lord Kitchener’s intention to resign. ff 12-16.
            5. 10 May Bishop Cotton School burned down. ff 17-18.
            6. 31 May Describes the graves of the children of Colonel Osborne of the 6th Royal Regiment dated 1873/4 in Simla. Dance at Viceregal Lodge. ff 23-5.
            7. 6 June Harold Stuart is acting as Home Secretary. Lord and Lady Curzon have gone into tents at Naldera for three weeks with one A.D.C., a tradition of Viceroys. Mentions that a Cyclopedia of India is being published. ff 25-7.
            8. 21 June Mrs Buck’s picnic for 100 at Mahasu and games. Attends wedding of Sir Reginald Mant, at that time in the Finance Department, to Miss Tandy. ff 30-3.
            9. 19 July Clothing for his tour in the Deccan. ff 39-41.
            10. 26 July Brief remarks on Mr Sidney Preston, Secretary of the Public Works Department. Also on Lord Curzon and the controversy about the retention or abolition of the post of Military member of the Council. ff 31-2.
            11. 4 August Poona. Begins tour. His hosts: Mr Fulton, a member of Council, Lord Lamington, Governor. Letters continue with brief descriptions of his hosts and the places visited. ff 43-4.
            12. 29 August Satara. Inspects the identical tiger’s claw which was used by Sivaji to kill Afzul Khan. ff 49-51.
            13. 7 September Simla. Describes his journey back to Simla. ff 52-4.
            14. 13 September Conversation with General Scott on an incident involving himself, Lord Curzon and Kitchener. ff 54-6.
            15. 20 September Some comments on his speech at the Conference of Directors of Public Instruction and Lord Curzon’s speech. Includes The Pioneer’s report. ff 56-8.
            16. 6 October Srinagar. His holiday in Cashmere on a houseboat mainly descriptive and names those he meets and the silver he buys. Describes the floating gardens. ff 64-6.
            17. 17 November Copy of Lord Curzon’s letter of thanks to Orange written on Curzon’s departure from India. f 87.


            1. 3 January News that he is to receive a C.I.E. Letters of congratulation. Continues to recuperate in hospital. ff 92-3.
            2. 14 February Now convalescing with Major and Mrs Senior – he is in the Intelligence Branch. ff 100-1.
            3. 7 March Mentions that India has adopted as standard time, the 80th degree of Eastern longitude which is 5 hours 20 mins ahead of England. More on the relations of the Commander in Chief to the Government of India. ff 104-6.
            4. 14 March Hires a rickshaw for the season. ff 106-8.
            5. 21 March Some remarks on Sir B. Fuller. Work starting on the rebuilding of Bishop Cotton School. ff 108-110.
        • Folder 7:
          • April – October 1906 resident at Simla; November 1906 – March 1907 touring to the following places: Indore, Ajmere, Delhi, Lahore, Rurki, Meerut, Agra, Allahabad, Benares, Calcutta, Gauhati, Tezpur, Dacca, Rangoon, Sagaing, Myitkhina, Mandalay, Madras, Waltair, Bombay.The file ends with Sir Hugh Orange’s departure from Bombay in March 1907 on his first furlough.Detailed description of the letters:
            1. 4 April Lord Minto said to be indignant at failure of the Home Department to give him a proper reception at Bombay. ff 3-4.
            2. 10 April Is obtaining fresh fruit and vegetables from same supplier to Curzon and Kitchener every other day. ff 5-6.
            3. 25 April Comments on the probability of Parliamentary intervention into Indian affairs. ff 7-9.
            4. 1 May Appointment of Sir Harvey Adamson as Member of Council for the Home Department. Great disappointment for Risley. ff 9-10.
            5. 7 May Brief comment on Birrell’s Bill in Parliament. ff 10-11.
            6. 21 May Entertains Mr Chakravarti, Inspector of Schools at Lucknow. ff 14-15.
            7. 30 May Receives his C.I.E. along with Herbert Cunningham Clogestoun. Copy of Mrs Annie Besant’s note. Describes her subsequent lecture. Possibility of closure of Walker Hospital which he is against as there is no other place in Simla where nursing can be obtained in winter. A few remarks on Colonel Bingley (7th Rajputs). ff 15-19.
            8. 27 June A note on Miss Stuart later Lady Wheeler. ff 26-9.
            9. 24 July Attends Central Committee Meeting of St John’s Ambulance Society in India – his first close encounter with Kitchener who was Chairman. ff 35-7.
            10. 1 August Comments favourably on Sidney Low’s book A vision of India. ff 37-40.
            11. 15 August Mule carts being used for parcel post owing to breakdown of railway. ff 41-2.
            12. 5 September Some brief comments on the series of volumes he is bringing out in relation to education and the difficulties and delays of going to press. ff 47-8.
            13. 12 September Mr Giles is chosen to come in his absence. ff 48-9.
            14. 19 September A story from Stuart about Lady Minto’s grievances against Lord Curzon. ff 50-2.
            15. 26 September Dinner with Colonel Kenny and other military. Discussed changes in Indian Army attitudes to caste and race. ff 52-4.
            16. 3 October Entertains two Muslims, one being Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Resident Secretary at Aligarh College. ff 54-7.
            17. 8 December Gauhati. Travelling on small steam yacht, The Kestrel, on the Brahmaputra river, briefly descriptive. Visits tea garden in the Tezpur district. ff 72-9.


            1. 2 January S.Y. Rebel on the Irrawaddy in Burma travelling from Myitkyina to Bhamo. School inspections. ff 80-3.
            2. 16 January Madras. Recounts briefly his visit to the Buddhist Archbishop in Burma.. ff 84-6.
            3. 22 February Bombay. Staying with Mr Fulton. Describes dinner with the Amir of Afghanistan. ff 92-7.

    Orange Papers: Box 1

    Sir Hugh Orange K.B.I., C.B., C.I.E.

    India general: 1902 – 1907

    Given by Andrew Orange (grandson)

    Sir Hugh Orange was the first Director General of Education in India based in Simla. The papers cover the years 1902-1907. The seven typewritten folders give a concise picture of his first years in India. There are many brief references to Lord Curzon throughout the letters. He mentions by name everyone he meets, also the official postings in Simla, but seldom touches on any of his work in education.

    The first two folders are his introductory notes to the letters written in 1942 to his parents, and give a table of contents listing subjects and people most encountered and with whom he worked. At the beginning of each of the folders and where his cold weather tours occurred will be found a synopsis of the contents of the letters and an itinerary of the tours, dates and the houses he stayed in. He mentioned that he has omitted all “comments on controversial matters such as the retirement of Sir J. Bampfylde Fuller”.

      1. Folder I:
        • Notes on Lord Curzon, Sir Power Palmer, Lord Kitchener, Sir Denzil and Lady Ibbetson, Sir Edmond Ellis, General C.H. Scott, John Prescott Hewett, Sir H. Risley, Sir Walter Lawrence, H.W. Carnduff, J.O. Miller, R. Nathan, Col. Sir J. Dunlop Smith. 51 ff.
      2. Folder 2:
        • Notes on Sir Harold A. Stuart, General Bomford, Sir John Marshall, Sir Charles Rivaz, Bishop George Lefroy, E.D. Maclagan, W. Bell – he talks of the military people in Simla and comments on the housing sites of the Punjab Government there; from education: C. W. Waddington of the Mayo College, A.J. Mere, Lt. Gen. Sir E. de V. Atkinson of the Thomason Engineering College, Rurki; Sir E. Denison Ross of the Calcutta Madrasah; Rev. A.H. Hildersley of the Lawrence Military Asylum, Sanawar; Theodore Morison of the M.A.O. College, Aligarh and several teachers who worked at Auckland House in Calcutta in 1902-08. Mr A.M. Ker of the Alliance Bank in Simla. Various comments on three journalists and Mrs Everard Cotes, E.J. Buck as Reuters agent and H. Hensman of The Pioneer. Count Starnberg, German Consul General. Comments on the Universities Commission 1902, on various policy reforms concerned with education under Lord Curzon and in that connection an interview with the French enquirer, M. Chailley Bert. The formation of the Bureau of Education. He passes comments and gives his views on the social life in Simla. His tours were from November to March in each year when he covered all of the nine provinces except 1905-6 owing to illness, 68 ff.
      3. Folder 3:
        1. June – October 1902 resident in Simla; October 1902 – April 1903 touring to the following places: Umballa, Rurki, Aligarh, Agra, Sihora, Jubbulpore, Nagpur, Raipur, Calcutta, Bankipur, Delhi, Bombay, Lahore, Amritsar, Jullunder.Detailed description of the letters:1902
          1. 9 June Galway House, Simla. Finishing of the University Commission’s Report. Lord Curzon’s critical remark to Mr Giles, Director of Public Instruction of Bombay. Comments further on Lord Curzon. ff 7-11.
          2. 16 June Names those on the Universities Commission. Quotation from Lord Curzon’s Convocation. Speech of 15 February on education. ff 11-15.
          3. 22 June Meets a Mr Marshall who comments on the Anglo-Indians. Eton-Winchester dinner. ff 15-20.
          4. 29 June Details of a tea-party at Galway House. Dines with the Latimers; he is assistant Private Secretary to Lord Curzon: speaks of the Viceroy and Lord Lytton. State Ball – description: ff 20-4.
          5. 9 July Comments on John Hewett about to be Commissioner in the Central Provinces. ff 25-7.
          6. 15 July Redecorating Galway House and has ping-pong table made. Visits Auckland House School. ff 27-30.
          7. 23 July Describes dinner at Viceregal Lodge. ff 30-3.
          8. 31 July Dines at Baines Court with the Lt. Governor and Lady Rivaz. ff 22-6.
          9. 7 August Acquires small office and temporary staff at The Rookery, Jakko. Preparing a draft for a policy resolution dealing with education. Describes dance floor at Barnes Court, ëswung on chainsí designed by Rudyard Kipling’s father. ff 36-8.
          10. 13 August Meets Mrs Risley, German, taught Lord Lytton’s children. ff 39-41.
          11. 18 August Hears part of Lord Curzon’s letter offering Risley the post of Home Secretary. Military disappointed that Sir Power Palmer will have to leave India before the durbar to make way for Kitchener. Tennis. ff 41-4.
          12. 31 August Reference to Gorst. ff 48-50.
          13. 7 September Visits the Lawrence Military Asylum in Sanawar with Mr Bell, Director of Public Instruction in the Punjab. Over 500 children. The Rev. A.H. Hildesley, the Principal, been there 19 years and does not wish to leave. Orange comments on this as a rare thing for India. Describes visit. A note on Hildesley and family. ff 50-4.
          14. 16 September Visits the Roman Catholic Convent of the Order of Jesus and Mary. Impressed with the way the nuns arrange the marriages of their pupils. ff 54-7.
          15. 21 September Dines at the Ibbetsons to meet. the Viceroy – a party of 20, all are named and brief comments given. Lady Elles consulted an Indian thought reader over the loss of a valuable piece. Mentions L. Mercer and J.B. Wood, and Sir Hugh Barnes. ff 57-61.
          16. 28 September Mr Jacob’s house is for sale. Jacob being ‘Mr Isaac’ in Marion Crawford’s book and ‘Mr Lurgan’ in Kim. Hears about Jacob from auctioneer’s wife. A reference to Lord Roberts when on a visit to the Convent school. ff 61-4.
          17. 5 October Refers to H.A. Stuart who is living with him for two weeks. A quote from Lord Curzon. ff 65-8.
          18. 14 October Masked Ball postponed owing to the death of Captain Mallaby, brother in law of Lady Barnes. A visit from Sir Andrew Fraser. Sees a Bengali adaptation of Hamlet -women in purdah there. ff 68-71.
            Cold weather tour 1902/3 synopsis of activities, dates, places etc. ff 78-80.
            Holders of the principal official posts in the places he visited. f 81.
            5 November Agra, Aligarh School; details of visit. ff 82-4.
          19. 13 November Jubbulpore, Country schools – with Inspector Sharp. Detailed description. ff 84-5.
          20. 20 November Nagpur, Stays with Hewett, Chief Commissioner, and Mr Monro, Director of Public Instruction. No fire-places in the house: ff 86-88.
          21. 26 November Camp at Nagpur – with Mr Mitchell, an Inspector of Schools – visit village schools; Paldi. Elected a member of Bengal Club. Visits a Chiefsí College with Newett at Raipur. ff 88-91
          22. 3 December Calcutta. Impressed with village schools. In mourning for Sir John Woodburn. ff 91-3.
          23. 7 December Calcutta. Bengal Club. ff 93-4.
          24. 21 December Calcutta. Lord Curzon presents a marble monument recording the names of those who died in the ‘Black Hole’. Has been gazetted to having private entree to Government House. Says railway accommodation is good. ff 94-6.
          25. 30 December Delhi. Camp outside Cashmere Gate. Camps stretch for seven to eight miles. Describes Durbar processions. Comments on Lord Kitchener as lacking in grace and spontaneity. ff 96-9.


          1. 6 January Exhaustion over the investiture. 10,000 – 12,000 at Durbar but could hear Viceroy’s speech and the Bishop of Lahore’s speech clearly. Duke of Connaught greeted enthusiastically. ff 99-102.
          2. 14 January Byculla Club, Bombay. 3,000 at State Ball in Delhi. Comments on muted enthusiasm that greeted Lord Curzon. ff 102-4.
          3. 24 January Visits Poona and meets F.G. Selby, Director of Public Instruction. Visits the Governor, Lord Northcote, also Mr Fulton, Sir J. Monteath. ff 105-6.
          4. 27 January Ahmedabad. More on Bombay meetings. Visits the Chiefs of Kathiawar College at Rajkot. Principal is Waddington descriptive. ff 107-9.
          5. 4 February Bombay. Elphinstone College. Stayed in Indore with Mr C.S. Bayley. Brief comments on the Resident, Major Younghusband and family. Stayed in Ajmere with A.L.P. Tucker. Visited Chiefsí College – descriptive. ff 109-12.
          6. 8 February Government House, Madras, with Lord Ampthill. ff 112-14.
          7. 18 February Collector’s House, Madura. Also to Trichinopoly met R.H. Shipley, – Collector. ff 114-16.
          8. 25 February Madras. Meeting with missionaries – Rev. Dr Sell. ff 116-17.
          9. 10 March Lucknow. Stays with Sir James La Touche. ff 118-20.
          10. 18 March Lahore. Stays with W. Bell. Chiefs’ College – Eton boy from Hyderabad now there. ff 120-1.
          11. 25 March Lahore. Visits School of Art, Medical College. ff 122-3.
          12. 30 March Lahore. Recounts visit to Amritsar – stayed with Maclagan. Two visits to the Golden Temple. Reference to Lord Curzon. Comments on W. Bell – great difficulties of separated families while on service in India. ff 123-6.
      4. Folder 4:
        • April – November 1903 resident in Simla; October 1903 – April 1904 touring to the following places: Lahore, Ahmedabad, Bombay, Karachi, Calcutta, Rangoon, Moulmein, Ajmere, Darjeeling, Naini Tal, Mussoorie.Detailed description of the letters:1903
          1. 15 April Returns to newly decorated Galway House. New railway from Kalka to Simla almost completed. ff 3-5.
          2. 6 May Comments on C.W. Waddington newly installed as Principal of the Mayo College at Ajmere. ff 7-8.
          3. 14 May Daily lessons in Urdu. Visits Sir Denzil and Lady Ibbetson. Lord Curzon no longer seeing his secretaries regularly. ff 8-10.
          4. 17 May Brief comment on Lord Kitchener. ff 10-12.
          5. 24 May Gives his social diary for that week. More on Lord Kitchener. Comments on a report on Indian railway management. ff 12-15.
          6. 3 June Notes on Sadler. Conversation with Mr Latimer, permanent private secretary to Lord Curzon – great pressure on officers of Government. The Delhi medal. Meets again E.H. Elles from Calcutta. ff 15-18.
          7. 10 June Interest rates. ff 18-20.
          8. 14 June Conversation with Cotes – journalist – ardent advocate of fiscal revision for free trade within the Empire. ff 20-2.
          9. 30 June State Ball – Lord Kitchener. ff 24-6.
          10. 14 July Preparations for journey to Darjeeling; books to be read. ff 27-30.
          11. 28 July Darjeeling. At St Paul’s school. Details from a visit to a tea garden at Kurseong. Comments on the school. ff 30-2.
          12. 6 August Simla. Details of visit to a jute press belonging to Ralli brothers near Calcutta. ff 33-5.
          13. 12 August Entertains grandson of Sir Syed Ahmed who is being brought up by the Morisons at Aligarh. Conversation with Lord Curzon at a bal poudre at Viceregal Lodge – on education. Speculation on Curzon’s successor. Comments on Lord Ampthill. ff 35-40.
          14. 19 August Several deaths on the trains due to excessive heat. ff 40-2.
          15. 27 August Council meeting concerning forthcoming legislation on the Universities – those there including Curzon and subjects discussed. Note on Lord Newton and Curzon. ff 42-44.
          16. 1 September More on above meeting. Curzon not learnt Urdu. ff 44-6.
          17. 10 September Wishes to arrange a visit to Japan to report on their system of education which is viewed as successful. ff 46-8.
          18. 8 October Details of a visit to Thanedar with Syed Ross Mahsud and Ransome, Consulting Architect. Black bear hunting. ff 51-4.
          19. 15 October Comments on Mr Monro, Director of Public Instruction in the Central Provinces. ff 55-6.
          20. 22 October Comments on Lawrence, private secretary to Curzon. ff 56-8
          21. 29 October Dinner at Viceregal Lodge for Lawrence. Quote Curzon’s speech. ff 58-60.
          22. 5 November Gives brief account of the meeting of the Legislative Council to hear the Indian Universities’ Bill being introduced. ff 60-2.
          23. Brief synopsis of his cold weather tour 1903/4 – 10 November 21 April. ff 63-4.
          24. 22 November Ahmedabad. Describes visit, staying with F. Lely, Commissioner. ff 66-8.
          25. 11 December S.S. Dunra. Voyage to Mandalay. ff 70-4.
          26. 26 December Mandalay. Describes his visit, travelling with J. Van Someren Pope, D.P.I. in Burma. ff 75-8.
          27. 29 December Upper Burma Club, Mandalay – the old Palace of Theebaw and Supiyalet. ff 78-80.


          1. 13 January S.S. Bihara. Account of his visit to Pagan and the lacquer work. ff 80-4.
          2. 3 February Calcutta. Comments on the forthcoming Conference in Rajputana of Indian Chiefs to discuss with English political officers how they wish their sons to be brought up at the Colleges, Mr Sells to be tutor to the Maharajah of Patiala. ff 87-9.
          3. 24 February Calcutta. Foundations being dug for a large marble Hall to commemorate the Queen. Hears lecture by Sir William Emerson – the architect. ff 91-4.
          4. 17 March Ajmere. The Chiefs’ Conference – descriptive of those attending. ff 97-100.
          5. 24 March Calcutta. Comments on a Resolution which defines the government policy in regard to education. Feels the absence of domestic life, but is considering a further stay of ten years. ff 100-4