Gwynn Papers: Microfilm no. 60


Mr Gwynn writes that his memoir contains ‘very little of business and mostly of pleasure’. However it includes descriptions of his life, some observations on the administration and accounts of tours of inspection. He was a keen walker and climber and made many journeys in different parts of the subcontinent, most notably in Sikkim. He claimed to be the last British citizen serving in the I.A.S. People he met include Sir Theodore and Lady Tasker, Nawabzada Liaqat Ali Khan, Sir C.P. Ramaswami Ayyar, Sir Chandulal Trivedi (first Governor of Andhra Pradesh), Mme. Sun Yat Sen, President Rajendra Prasad, Mr Tanguturi Prakasam (first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh), Mr S.K. Dey, Pandit Nehru, the Maharajkumar of Sikkim, Sir Penderel Moon and the Raja of Faridkot.

Interleaved in the memoir are various original letters etc. as follows:

    1. Letter, dated 13 May [1940?], from R.J. Habdorf about a dog bite and veterinary certificate.
    2. Telugu bill for supplies while in camp, February 1940.
    3. Notice, dated 23 September 1942: proceedings of the District Magistrate, Salem. Restrictions on sale of grain.
    4. Letter, dated 25 December 1965, from L.N. Rao about Padem area.
    5. Detailed memorandum of procedure, dated [Madras] 23 February 1946: ‘His Excellency the Governor – departure and Governor-Designate – arrival’.
    6. Copy of letter, dated 13 February 1946, signed by Lord Pethick-Lawrence, appointing Sir Henry Foley Knight as acting Governor of Madras.
    7. Postcard from C. Rajagopalachari, dated Madras, 31 December 1945, making appointment to see J.P.G.
    8. Letter from Dr W. Quaife, dated Cooner, 17 April 1949, about the identification of various plants.
    9. Letter, begun 29 November 1951 and dated 7 December 1951, from Sir John Hall. Discusses members of the I.C.S. in Malabar in the 1870s and 80s.
    10. Letter, n.d. but probably late 1947, from C.S. Gunning saying goodbye on leaving India.
    11. Page from diary, dated 12 November 1951, describing walk in Papi Hills, Hyderabad State.
    12. (a) Child’s drawing? List of battalions.(b) Note in child’s hand wishing happy birthday. 22 June 1974.
    13. Letter, dated 24 April 1953, from C.S. Ramachandran [Public (General-A) Department, Madras] congratulating J.P.G. on action over the enquiry into police shooting at Tadepallegudem on 16 February 1952.
    14. Engagement list, Governor’s Summer Residence, Waltair. Covers period 9 June to 1 July 1955.
    15. Conference of Collectors and other Officers, Kurnool. Programme, etc. 19 to 20 February 1954.
    16. (a) Story told to J.P.G. by the Tahsildar, Chandragiri in 1964. (b) A chapter of accidents October 1965 (Taggart family’s journey from India to Ireland, September 1965).
    17. Letter, dated 7 June 1960, from K.B.G. Prasada Rao, Income Tax Officer, Hyderabad, about J.P.G.’s income tax assessments.

Gwynn Papers: Box 4

    1. TS Report on Non-Co-operation Movement, Kistna District 1923 from H.H.F.M. Tyler, Collector of Kistna District to R.S. Graham, Chief Secretary to the Government of Madras.
      • General organisation and methods of Non-Co-operation Movement and its position vis a vis Government. Character and psychology of people of Andhra and the followers of Non-Co-operation Movement..Forms of Non-Co-operation Movement in Kistna District. Principles in dealing with the movement and action taken to control it.
      • Future policy. 29pp.
    2. Government of Madras. Public Works and Labour Department. (Irrigation) G.O. No. 3249 I. 17 November 1930. Irrigation – Madura – Periyar system – Mr. Hall’s report – Orders passed. 128pp.
    3. Note on the Permanent Settlement by Rao Sahib P.K. Gnanasundara Mudaliyar. Madras, Government Press, 1940. 201pp.
    4. Report on tour in the Attapadi Valley by J.P.L. Gwynn, Sub-Collector, Malappuram to the Collector of Malabar, Calicut, 5 February 1944. 16pp.
      • Communications; economic conditions, and the economic balance of the valley; Grow More Food campaign, Irular welfare; supplies to the valley; cattle raising; welfare work at Valayur; malaria control; well digging programme; education and various schools; effect on Irulars of better communications and opening up the valley; comments on Irulars’ characteristics; Syrian Christian ashram at Tadagam; reiteration of necessity of help for Irulars if valley is opened up and recommendations.
    5. Report by J.P.L. Gwynn, Inspecting Officer to H.W. Bouchier, Collector of Malabar, Calicut, on inspection of Laccadive Islands, 1945, covering Agathi, Kavarati, Kalpeni, Suheli, Androth, Minicoy under headings of medical, education, agriculture, routine work, administration; Melacheris, property rights, coir depot.
    6. Koya-Melacheri dispute, supplies, etc.
    7. Appendix: Rice Imports 1 October 1943 – 30 September 1944.
    8. Letter from H.Q. Southern Command, Bangalore, about measures to be taken in event of Japanese invasion. 2 October 1942.
    9. Letter from K.K. Dass, Ongole, 1 October 1942 to J.P.L. Gwynn about the rioting there. 2pp.

Gwynn Papers: Box 3

Extracts from J.T. Gwynn’s letters copied into notebooks.

(These fill the gaps in the first list: the numbers refer to the original letters.)


Book 1

  1. 6 May. Tindivanam. Going into camp.
  2. 15 May. Gingee. 37:54.
  3. 16 June. Chengam. Been walking in jungle in Javadis. Visited Tiruvannamalai temple. Comments on Hindu religion, and religious authorities.
  4. 18 June. Chengam. Would like course on practical engineering; minor engineering works in incompetent hands. Near Pondicherry, Hyder Ali country.
  5. 22 June. Tiruvannamalai. Annual settlement just finished; cites examples of petitions – comments on litigation, and on the police.
  6. 7 July. Madras Club. Comment on landlord class of west coast. Meets Cowie, I.G.P. Examples of Divisional work.
  7. 15 July. Tindivanam. Been to stay at Cuddulore; good country. Quarrelsome place: describes members of the European and Indian society in detail.
  8. 5 August. Kottakuram. Near Pondicherry. Going to call on British consul. Describes scenery and birds. Meets German and American missionaries.
  9. 25 August. Tindivanam.37:55.
  10. 15-16 September. Shernthamur, Villupuram. Variety of crops and vegetables possible to grow. Going to Kolianur and Valananur – a wicked town. Describes 17 mile ride from Karai to Villupuram and all mishaps. Brings rain to village.
  11. 29 September. Tindivanum Account of magistrates’ work and status. Attitude towards Indian politics; south untouched by Bengal. Possible Press censorship. Village cases.
  12. 8 October. Gingee. 37:57.
  13. 12 October. Devanur, 12 miles north of Gingee, very beautiful. Introduced first budget to Taluk Board.
  14. 25 October. Kandamangalam. 37:58
  15. 3 November. Tindivanam. Going to Trichinopoly.
  16. 21 November. En route for Madras and Trichinopoly. Difficulties of parting. Describes Trinomalai Festival. 40,000 attend. Comment on railway travel.
  17. 20 November. 37:59

Book 2

  1. 1 December. Trichinopoly. Staying with Butterworths, the Collector. His syce and father have died of cholera. Social obligations of large station. Starting magisterial work.
  2. 10 December. Trichinopoly. Features of Collectorate. Attached to Padukkottai State. Catalogued confidential papers of Collectorate, describes some background incidents. Stories of an eccentric Collector.
  3. 16 December. Gets own bungalow. Has been Acting Collector. for three weeks. Going to Pudukkottai State.
  4. 23 December. Trichinopoly. No interest in arranging house, furniture etc. Compares with Hindu frugality. Economies by Municipality – Brahmin clerks’ economics, and way of life. Plethora of social obligations.
  5. 25 December. Hears of Tindivanian riot, 4 shot. Describes in detail disputes which are the cause and background of the riot: ill feeling between R.C.s and Hindus in a street in Villapuram. Discusses handling by D.M.
  6. 30 December. New District Medical and Sanitary Officer: Chalmers. Railway just extended to South Canara, brings the first cholera. Large number of Eurasians in Trichinopoly – personal analysis of characteristics.


  1. 2 January. Praise of his butler. Two questions of etiquette.
  2. 7 January Alternative reasons for rise in rice and grain prices; possible riots. Soccer matches by SPG Schoolboys, very good. P & O and Japanese competition.
  3. n.d. Description of scenery from Trichinopoly Rock Amusing sidelights. Pudukkottai State affairs.
  4. 28 January. Account of case of fraud and trickery. Remarks change in attitude towards Government.
  5. 5 February. Trichinopoly. Hierarchy of servants. ‘Witness depot’ in town.
  6. 4 February. Trichinopoly. To be sent to Tinnevelly as Chadwick’s Assistant on Settlement duty. Describes settlement work, and Chadwick’s character and ability. Also describes a D.O. named Jackson, up to date – gave first D.O.s Indian garden party. Says everyone knows change (in British India) has to come, but Anglo Indians will put up a fight. Pros and cons of British leaving India. Swadeshi maxim of denationalizing.
  7. 8 February. Trichinopoly. Describes waste land round Trichinopoly. Comments on the Collector and his wife.
  8. 10 February. 38:60
  9. 19 February Bangalore. On eight day SPMR camp. Comments on high quality of ICS representation.
  10. 28 February. Bangalore. 38:61
  11. 1 March. Tinnevelly. Missionaries. Describes characters at school sports.. Comments on jewelry. Strike riots at Tuticorin. Administrative changes; describes newcomers Forestry Service.
  12. 3 March. Background to Tuticorin strikes at Harvey’s cotton mill. Swadeshi tactics; Collector’s method of dealing with it. Discussion of problems connected with administering law and order. Comments on Government of India class representation scheme by Provinces.
  13. 10 March. Ambasamudrum. Missionaries and the club. Converts – sketches of individual administrators.
  14. 13 March. Palamkottai. Strike over, rioting continues by Swaraj agitators in Tuticorin and Tinnevelly. Description of riots and control. Missionary attitude.
  15. 14 March. 50 police sent to Tinnevelly – Tuticorin mill hands striking again. Troops going in. Forest officers bring news of widespread unrest.
  16. 15 March. All quiet again: Attitude of Moderate member of Legislative Council Honorary Magistrate Annadurai Aiyer sent up, interviews Collector. Report of .Interview – Rangasami Aiyer.
  17. 16 March. European and Indian reaction to riots. Gives sketch map of locations of police posts, officers, houses in Palamkottai
  18. 20 March. Ambassamudrum. Punitive measures and attitudes after rioting. Description of taluk and settlement work.
  19. 22 March. Chadwick has arrived. Has seen Tenkasi taluk very attractive.
  20. 25 March Chidambaram Pillai in jail.
  21. 3 April. Kuttalam. Description – Litigation over Europeans bathing in a caste pool. Has visited an old coffee plantation now fruit farm. Attitude towards Indians.
  22. 5 April. 38:63 Part II.
  23. 12 April. Tinnevelly. Camping with Chadwick on Tenkasi Ambasamudrum. Wallace trying sedition cases. To take charge of Ambasamudrum and Nanguniri taluks Inner history of the riots beginning with Tuticorin Steam Navigation Co. – Chidambaram Pillai.
  24. 20 April. Cannicattee. Describes the Kanis, tribal people.
  25. 27 April. Ambasamudrum. Accounts of Jackson at one time District Officer and other stories.
  26. 1 May. Nanguniri. Attitudes of Indians to foreigners and British rule. Educated classes and nationalism. Sedition trials and hopes of Japanese invasion.
  27. 5 May. Shermadevi. Mentions Castle Stuart Stuart, Member of Board of Revenue, Madras Presidency.
  28. 18 May. Sivasailam. Amusing description of settlement work.
  29. 29 May. Shirmadevi,
  30. 31 May. Palamcottah. In for meting of Officials Saturday District Board Meeting with civilians in district. Aftermath of riots. Syro-Chaldean Church v. RC Church. Comments on Wallaces, Bishop and Sir Ralph Benson.
  31. 15 June. Palamcottah. Hunt silver fox without killing it. Monsoon after forest fires. Pinhay trying Chidambaram Pillai.
  32. n.d. n.p. Still on Settlement work which drives off isolation. Considers subordinate staff and settlement problems. Visits Zemindar of Singamputti who runs successful Swadeshi tile factory. Account of training by Scots manager. Criticism of Government Home for orphan Zemindar boys. Attitude of average ICS to sedition.
  33. 21 June. 38:67
  34. 29 June. Nanguneri. Nationalism and the Madras ryot, and in the whole country. Attitude to measures against sedition from England and in Indian Government. Morley, Minto and the Press. Attitude of moderate Indians, and Indian officials; proposed preventive measures, comment on Press Act – Legal cases; Subromanim Siva, Krishna Iyer and Chidambaram Pillai.
  35. 15 July. Alwarkurichi, Ambassamudrum. Pinhey’s judgment on Subramanim Siva and Chidambaram Pillai and others and effect. Necessity of both Liberal policy and repression. Problems of Indian representation on councils. Tilak’s arrest.
  36. 21 July. Sivasailam. Camp on settlement work. Stories of individual Indian clerks.
  37. 38:68
  38. 38:69
  39. 38:70
  40. 16 August. Palamcottah. Snake-bite incident. Repercussions about Pinhey’s judgment, by Sir Henry Cotton et al in England. Reputation of Cotton’s son. Anecdotes. Case between French RC priest and his parishioners.
  41. 38:71
  42. 31 August. Idaihal, Tenkasi. Rough Patta hearings described.
  43. 22 September. Pampuli: Tenkasi. Brief note in midst of petitions. Examples of petitions.
  44. 38:72
  45. 6 October. Tenkasi. Brief note – Petitions continue.
  46. 38:73
  47. 18 October. Palamcottah. Promotions and changes. Dutt Sessions Judge.
  48. 38:74

Book 3

  1. 38:76
  2. 17 November. Palamcottah. Brahmin comes to lunch.
  3. 22 November. Ponnahaddy. Chadwick and he have heard 10,000 petitions since August. Brief sketch of the taluk.
  4. 30 November. n.p. Governor’s visit (Sir Arthur Lawley): Indians’ placating welcome, received in temple; shown settlement office and agricultural produce.
  5. 38:77


  1. 5 January. Kailpatti-Satur. New branch office opened. Attends ICS dinner Madras; Hammick replaced Stokes, conservative, anti-Reforms. News from Pondicherry.
  2. 39:78
  3. 39:79
  4. 39:80
  5. 10 February. Palamcottah. Shooting – Case of assessment and rights in Adaichani tank. Assessment difficulties in Tiruvaliswaram. Attitude and opinion of Hindus through contact with individual landowner and villagers. Difficulty of false evidence. Assessment economics and policy. Land Tax controversy. Injustice in division of grain between Hindu landlord and tenants.
  6. 39:82
  7. 39:83
  8. 26 March. Kopera Topi. Brief notes on settlement work to come.
  9. 4 April, Easter Sunday. Palamcottah. Changes in staff. Character sketches of Peddie Exec. Engineer, McIvor Collector, Davidson new Collector, Mullins, Judge Spencer and his wife. 6 April. Kailpatti. On assessment work again.
  10. 39:86
  11. 39:87
  12. 39:88
  13. 39:89
  14. 39:91
  15. 5 June. Srivikuntam. Palmyra tree count begins. Going on leave.
  16. 3-18 September S.S. Staffordshire (Bibby Line). Describes incidents on voyage.
  17. 22 September. Arrives Tinnevelly Bridge.
  18. 39:95
  19. 7 October. Iruvappuram. Two trustworthy native assistants. Settlement and work – Irrigation supervision -Properous SPG Christian village – well mannered.
  20. 39:96
  21. 26 October. Pudukudy. Developed methods of Land Settlement inaugurated and carried out by Collector.
  22. 39:97
  23. 18 November. Still very hard work on RP work.
  24. 20 November. On boat to Ceylon to play cricket. Brief notes on names and marriage customs.
  25. 39:99
  26. 18 December. Halfway through villages in RP work. – Anomaly of pay between himself and subordinates.
  27. 24 December. Mudittanandal. Village produced 957 petitions – very hard work. Results of first elections under Morley reforms. Guruswamy Iyer defeated. Incident indicative of.ignorance of villagers about elections.


  1. 2 January. Vagankulam. Christmas – Story of harsh treatment in Hyderabad.
  2. 15 January. Padukatty. Going to Myanapuram.
  3. 40:103
  4. 20 February. Finished RP work.
  5. 21 February. Pudakatty. More village work. Anecdotes.
  6. 6 March. Accusations by Tinnevelly District Association against the Resettlement.
  7. 40:104
  8. 6 March. Palamcottah. Shooting
  9. 14 March. 40:105.
  10. 14 March. Survey before proposed Resettlement of Northern taluks Bad choice in election to Madras Executive Council. Criticism of Morley’s scheme for executive Councils.
  11. 21 March. Incident of wounding boy and sequel.
  12. 31 March. In the Travancore hills. Incident of Forest guard’s deceit.
  13. 10 April. 40:106
  14. 16 April. Sankaranainarkoil Taluk. Poor country, litigious people for land, religion and caste matters. Example cited between Marovars and Naiches. Taluks of Ottapadaram and Satur – characteristics of people. Deputation from Bengal Government.
  15. 22 April. Koilpatti. Creation of Ramnad District, Bryant first Collector, deputy Ashe, Sessions Judge Sydney Gordon Roberts (Tamil scholar). Opinion of all three. Servants and peons.
  16. 1 May. Visiting high administrative officers – Castle Stuart Stuart Commissioner and Schmidt Inspector General of Registration, both of whom are described in detail. Carry on mock battle with Mounted Volunteers and Police reserve. Character of Zemindar of Singampatti.
  17. 7 May. Tuticorin. Registering unowned land. Attends wedding of a Settlement Tahsildar. Is told history of rise of Muthuswamy Iyer.
  18. 19 May. Suoriskapuram. In remote areas. Toddy juice and beer.
  19. 1 June. Tirikarangudy. Quality of topes.
  20. 7 June. 40:108
  21. 10 June. 40:109
  22. 16 June. 40:111
  23. 16 June. 40:112
  24. 8 July. 40:113
  25. 18 July. Kattaikarungulam. Attitude of Indian Apothecary to Assistant Inspector of Salt.
  26. 24 July. 40:114
  27. 1 August. Going to camp. Census work beginning.
  28. 6 August. Devauallur. Lists the variety of work and projects undertaken by ICS; relationships with colleagues in District and outside; constant interest in Indian subordinates. Lists individuals who particularly interest him – their characters and characteristic incidents particularly of Brahmins.
  29. 6 September. 40:115
  30. 9 September. 40:116
  31. 12 September. 40:117
  32. 19 September. 40:118
  33. 7 October. Sketch of social tensions and individual characteristics.
  34. 5 October. 40:121 (very reduced from original)
  35. 18 October. 40:122
  36. 29 October. 40:123
  37. 5 November. RC village asking for more European officers to counteract bribery. First RC village he has heard RPs. Paravars, very poor. Attitude.of priest. Caste within the church.
  38. 11 November. 40:124
  39. 21 November. Takes over from Chadwick who becomes Director of the Agricultural Department. Settlement work continuing – short handed.
  40. 3 December. Idayankurdy. Last RP camp. Difficult mission centre. Describes society in the District.


  1. 23 January. Palamcottah. Describes new assistant Matheson.
  2. 41:127
  3. 41:128a
  4. 8 February. Transferred to Madras on six months’ probation, as Revenue Under Secretary at very short notice.
  5. 10 February. Under Secretary’s work; sorry to leave Settlement.
  6. (Index at back of Book 3 referring to individuals mentioned in the diary)

Book 4

  1. 41:129
  2. 22 February. Contrasts of Under Secretary’s life – more comfortable, but does not meet Indians.
  3. 41:130
  4. 8 March. Overwork in Secretariat – Scandal of Surgeon General.
  5. 18 March. Opium Revenue, opium growing and its abolition. Secretariat work, very hard and long. Considers two members of Governor’s. Council very weak. Krishnaswamy ablest of four. Acting Revenue Secretary, Butterworth, outline of character, and of Cardew, Revenue Secretary who returns.
  6. 28 March. 41:131
  7. 12 April. Brief note on way to Ootacamund.
  8. 18 April. Brief description.
  9. 23 May. On flowers.
  10. 23 April. Gives list of individuals in Ooty Society.
  11. 8 May. 41:132
  12. 4 June. 41:134.
  13. 20 June. Work easing. Hunting and society described. Zemindars’ school.
  14. Very abbreviated excerpt from 41:141
  15. 41:142
  16. 7 October. n.p. Profile of Professor Rudolph of Indian Institute of Science. More on Krishnaswamy.
  17. 26 January. Camp Kottisa. Describes countryside. Mentions pay
  18. 10 February. Berhampore. Labour Battalions.
  19. 16 February. Camp Surada. 60 years old Sugar factory at Aska still running.
  20. 19 February. Camp Pondukhul. Describes countryside. Ooriyas – trade with Khonds – wild life, destruction of crops by elephants. Characteristics of khonds.
  21. 23 February. Camp Aska.
  22. 27 February. Camp Kondukerla. With Settlement Officer, Buckley.
  23. 3 March. Camp Lingurazapalam. Buckley sharing wide District experience – beautiful market.
  24. 12 March. Waltair. Epidemic of plague. Description of Eurasian woman inoculating people.
  25. 15 March. Camp Garabanda. Description of place and collector, R.W. Davies.
  26. 20 March. Camp Kallikottai. Describes place and Calcutta Madras road. Village HQ of Zamindar a minor, with Guardian called Didsworth and Eurasian wife. Arrangements for Zemindar’s marriage. Ugly temples
  27. 27 March. Palkonda. Prevalence of tigers.
  28. 3 April. Waltair. Pleasant account of Vetinerary Hospital and elephant being treated and crows drinking toddy juice. Going on tour by bicycle in Gol

Gwynn Papers: Box 2

Letters of J.T. Gwynn, I.C.S. 1912 – 1921 (father of J.P.L. Gwynn) to his mother, father, sisters etc.


  1. 28 January. Madras Club. Carmichael going to Bengal; highly thought of by some. The son of a Muslim Collector going to Trinity College, Dublin, asks his family to look after him.
  2. 7 February. Madras. Low opinion of Legislative Councils.
  3. 12 February. Madras. Enormous amount of work – jibs at standard of inefficiency in the P.W.D.
  4. 18 February. Madras. Again complains of work load and P.W.D. Lists the wide range of interests and occupations of administrators he meets.
  5. 4 March. Madras Club. Visited by a Forest Officer Scot in an Indianized district. lncident of a village killing five Forest subordinates. Comments on British strikes. Low opinion of new headmaster of native college. Missionary societies, education and Hindu militancy. Current Religious Education Conference Madras and Bombay. Educational Service agnostic.
  6. 17 March. Madras Club. Religious Education Conference seeking an all-embracing religion, also discussing demand for education without Christian instruction.
  7. 27 March. Madras. Cardew to be replaced by Wynch. Comments on quality of personnel and quantity of the work, and Claims and P.W.D.
  8. 3 April. Madras Club. Mentions Mohammedan boy (No. 42-146) will arrive at end of May in TCD.
  9. 8 April. Madras. Consideration of staff movement and vacancies in Revenue Department, and his leave. Attitude towards Government Secretariat. Unable to meet Indians; detrimental effect of volume of work; negative attitude of Legislative Councils. Characters of Cardew, Hammick, Harold Stuart, Davidson, Horne, Gillman, Davis. Centralisation and decentralisation – opinion of administration poor, reasons. Opinion of Indian labour. Questions standard of school inspection.
  10. 16 April. Ootacamund Club. Describes physical impact of Ooty, and Seven Pagodas.
  11. 23 April. Ootacamund Club. Ooty social life. Contrast between working for Cardew and Wynch.
  12. 25 May. (Ootacamund). Legislative Council’s resolution for decrease in taxation. Comment on Wynch and J. Atkinson and necessity for decentralization. Government of India and Madras’ problems. Mentions the word ‘native’ may no longer be used. Comment on power of Indian members to change customs e.g. Temple Service prostitution. Power in Native States.
  13. 2 June. (Ootacamund). Perils from crows on the Ooty golf course. Amusing anecdote of bull terrier. Incomplete.
  14. 9 June. Ootacamund Club. Hoping to go on leave. Amusing anecdotes. 2pp.
  15. 18 June. Ootacamund Club. Monsoon, Knighthoods in Madras.
  16. 30 June. Ootacamund Club. Sir Edmund Barrow might have been Kitchener’s successor. Reason for different choice of Moore O’Creagh. Opinions expressed by Sir Harold Stuart and Sir Edmund Barrow on Lord and Lady Minto, Lord and Lady Hardinge, Privy Council’s overruling High Court Calcutta. Account of mixed hunting in the Ooty country. Compares clerk’s life in India and England, and methods of working. 4pp.


  1. 10 February. S.S. Salsette. Returning to India. Sees silver bars being trans-shipped at Aden by night. Probably for Mint in Bombay. Madras Civil Service Commission witnesses. Amicable proceedings except for editor of the Hindu. Character of Gokhale, leading Commission.
  2. 11 February. S.S. Salsette. Describes other passengers, especially American and German. Opinion of Civil Service recruitment, Provincial Civil Service, and possibilities of rising in rank in the Service. Attitude towards higher appointments and possibility of Indians getting them. 3pp.
  3. 19 February. c/o D.T. Chadwick, Madras. Civil Service Commission inflaming hatred between Indian and European – Assistance given by Indian members of Commission, except for Gokhale. European attitudes towards Indian members especially Ramsay Macdonald, Islington and Mr. Corbet. Describes the latter’s lack of qualifications for post of Advocate of High Court, Madras, and incidents of his arrival, exemplifying social modes of the time. Going to Pudu Kottai as D.C.
  4. 23 February Pudu Kottai. Raja celebrating silver jubilee.
  5. 27 February. Madras (copy). Describes Raja’s jubilee – 30 or 40 European guests. Describes his army; (mentions boomerangs indigenous to area), durbars; processions. Comment on Raja’s manners and personality. 3pp.
  6. 11 March. Pudu Kottai. Describes district; lists organizations, buildings, etc., he is responsible for. State 30 years behind. British India. Attitude to Indians of two Europeans living in town.
  7. 27 April. Pudu Kottai Diatribe against Brahmins, a few good. Praise for British administration. Attitude to Indian philosophy.
  8. 3 May. Trichinopoly. Hot weather, going on tour. Has been checking PWD stores. Comment on quality of subordinate staff. Social occasions. Attitudes to Indians. News of marriage reaches India via newspapers.
  9. 11 May. Camp Kiranur. Story of the delivery of a fire engine and rice-husking machine.
  10. 18 May. Camp Viralimakai. In office most of time. Mixed blessing of motorcar. Dreary country. People less self-assertive. More about hot tempered Engineer.
  11. 14 June. Pudu Kottai. Very hot just before monsoon. Describes trees and creepers in compound. Railway strike in Madras.
  12. 29 June. Pudu Kkottai. Example of a case of wrongful accusation Good opinion of Engineer Gill’s work, compares it with Indian’s work.
  13. 30 June. Korombapudu. Discovers trees planted by Major Blackburne, Resident 1830-48. Ruin of his indigo factory – example of wasted land.
  14. 7 July. Chinnayachattram. Mainly personal about his wife’s (Joan) impending arrival. Comment on the ethics of the State.
  15. 13 July. Pudukkottai. Mainly personal. Going to a SPMR camp at Coimbatore. Example of the Raja’s extravagence.
  16. 29 July. Pudukkottai. Personal. Mentions his garden.
  17. 31 August. Pudukkottai. Comments on work accomplished by his garden staff, and on the water system of the State.
  18. 21 September. Pudukkottai. Failure of S.W. monsoon. Incompetence of all Departments in the State.
  19. 5 October Pudukkottai. Gardening. Amusing anecdotes. Wife (Joan) on way out. (Attached Tamil receipt). 2pp.
  20. 19 October. Pudukkottai. Account of Head of College selling his own books to the school. Public opinion shocked.
  21. 11 November. Pudukkottai. Wife has arrived.
  22. 18 November. Pudukkottai. Mentions that wife is transforming house. Have been busy with Raja’s visit to Viceroy in Madras.
  23. 26 November. c/o D.T. Chadwick, Madras. Describes wife’s visit to Raja’s sister Princess Jonahy at Trichinopoly; most amusing; dinner with Raja. Raja’s visit to Viceroy at Madras. Describes accommodation hired in Madras. New Forest Officer Latham arrives at Trichinopoly.


  1. 14 January. (Pudukkottai). Been in Madras for dentist. Comment on his position in Raja’s court, and Raja’s nephew. 3pp.
  2. 20 January. Pudukkottai. Describes difficult journey to Madras. Joan settling in to Indian society and life. New English-Indian Ladies Club opened in Madras. New Collector and P.A. arrived, Vibert, also Assistant Collector. 3pp.
  3. 2 February. Pudukkottai. Mentions Irish politics in relation to Sir Gabriel Stokes. Attitudes to European and Indian subordinates and political consciousness.
  4. 2 March. Pudukkottai. Been to opening of new railway route to Ceylon via Adam’s bridge. Meets Hemingway again.
  5. 22 May. Pudukkottai – from Joan Gwynn. Viberts and Gawnes staying, Collector and Assistant Collector. Describes social life. 4pp.
  6. 10 May. Camp Ponnomarovaty. Comment on Hindu administration. Describes complicated method of collecting taxes used in State. Ponnomarovaty village of usurers retired from Penang, Rangoon, Singapore. Further complications of land tenure. Case of heir presumptive being tricked.
  7. 25 May. Ootacamund. Good Brahmin Engineer building new Pudukkottai Palace. Heir presumptive taking case to court. Lists variety of problems.
  8. 7 June. Pudukkottai. Lists people being entertained including first woman doctor in Madras.
  9. 5 September.. Colombo, Galle Face Hotel. Have met relations en route to England from Australia – India’s attitude to the war.
  10. 5 September. Colombo, Galle Face Hotel. Commentary on war.
  11. From Joan Gwynn. 16 September. Pudukkottai. Account of collecting subscriptions from Pudukkottai ladies. Garden. Housekeeping.
  12. 24 September. Pudukkottai. The Emden has shelled Madras and sailed down coast – War comment.
  13. From Joan Gwynn. 18 November. Pudukkottai. Gardening and mentions Maharaja’s brother’s wedding. 2pp.
  14. 21 November. Pudukkottai. Comments on his attitude to Indian ceremonial and to appointment of an Indian judge. Comment on the war. Encloses prospective judge’s letter.
  15. From Joan Gwynn. 24 November. Pudukkottai. Describes in detail Raja’s Garden Party to 100 State officials, also a very large War meeting where she was only woman among 10,000. Dines at Palace. 6pp.


  1. From Joan Gwynn. 16 March. Camp Jembal. Aspects of camp organisation in desolate country in hot weather. From J.T. Gwynn on reverse. Special kind of chetties in village marrying only within village: building huge stone temple. Describes country. 3pp.
  2. From Joan Gwynn. 24 March. Pudukkottai. Describes in detail staying at temple in Avudyakoil as guests of Abbot, and their tremendous reception. 6pp. Encloses small drawing of large horns. (musical instruments).
  3. 2 April Pudukkottai Aspect of the war from India. State’s finances – second hot weather for his wife. Hopes of leave.
  4. n.d. Pudukkottai. Comments on Indians entertained, men and women. Going into camp. Horses taught to come for dessert. Sidelights on dealing with servants. 2pp.
  5. 29 June. Camp Puntope. Mentions war, strikes, etc. in England and Ireland. Questions of village education. 2pp.
  6. From Joan Gwynn. 13 July. Camp Ponnamarabaty. Domestic details of camp and servants. 2pp.
  7. 11 July. Camp Ponnamarabaty. Encloses letter from an Indian lawyer from Tinnevelly about the floods in Tambarapurini River. War comment.
  8. Letter from S.K. Sudha, Srivaikuntam. Detailed description of origin and progress of the floods, and rescue operations, which includes description of ferrying pots of provisions across the river (like toddy drawers).Plans to resettle village of Magilvannapuram (Muslim) and rebuild it as an ideal village on S. slope of Sri Moolakarai hillock. Details of plans. 7pp.


  1. 18 January 1918. Viraghottam (Vizagapatam District). India and the war. Learning Telegu. Has been training Deputy Collectors; trying to suggest anti-capitalist views of land questions. 3pp.
  2. 30 January 1918. Camp Kottisa, Palkonda Taluk. About work and colleague. War. Part of page torn off. 2pp.
  3. 26 February – 9 March 1920. Rahamuth Bagh, San Thome. Joan on the way home with the children. Effect of India buying gold: Irish situation. Attitude towards British drawing out of India and reasons. 3pp. + newspaper cutting about Irish situation.
  4. 5 August 1920. Kodai Kanal. On leave. Describes area and settlement, population. Pessimistic about Indian politics (after Jallianwalla Bagh) which had left a deep scar, and proposed Montague-Chelmsford reforms. In present circumstances only remedy increase in Indians to top posts of services. Indian politicians publicly act on assumption that early termination of British connection would be best thing. Privately may think differently. 2pp.
  5. 16 December 1920. Madras. Irish troubles. Thinks Indian situation equally bad – certain classes have caught disease of nationalism/racism. Reasons for this nationalistic feeling due to inherent characteristics, also admits wound of foreign domination. Pessimistic. 6pp.

Gwynn Papers: Box 1

Letters of J.T. Gwynn, I.C.S. 1905 – 1921 (father of J.P.L. Gwynn) to his mother, father, sisters etc.

(Some of the letters were copied into notebooks & the originals destroyed. Where this occurs, the number of the letter is listed & will be found in Box 2 – an item number is given in this handlist)


  1. 16 November 1905. On board ship on voyage out to India, in Straits of Gibraltar (sailed 11 November). Description of conditions of ship during storm. 6pp.
  2. 22 November. Just off Port Said. Describes ICS men on board, comments on new idea of taking University men for Indian Railways. Mentions Brackenbury. 6pp.
  3. n.d. p1 missing – after Suez Canal. Describes coaling. Remarks on physiogamies, and sunsets. 4pp.
  4. Copy. 29 November. Near Aden. Describes some of crew and passengers.
  5. 7 December. Just off Colombo. More about voyage after Aden and individuals, particularly ICS men. 4pp.
  6. 14 December. Doveton House, Nungumbaukum, Madras. Met by servant of Judge Benson (Sir Ralph Benson). Describes procedure for new ICS immediately on landing. 2pp.
  7. 17 December. Madras. Daily programme. More on early days of young ICS – Attitudes, customs and individuals. Calling. Social habits; ‘domestic slavery’; comments on politics and attitudes to the subject. meets Sir Philip Hutchin. Mentions birds seen. 8pp.
  8. 24 December. Madras. Comments on way ICS newcomers without friends are treated with regard to accommodation. Goes snipe shooting; aside on how a High Court Judge is treated in public. 4pp.


  1. 3 January. Posted to Coimbatore, Collector R.H. Shipley. Cricket.
  2. 10 January. The Club, Coimbatore (Copy). Glad to leave ‘caste’ society of Madras. Comments on C. of E. clergy, R.C. priests, and French administrators. Gives statistics of district. Describes the Shipleys.
  3. 14 January. In Madras for a cricket match and Coimbatore. Comments freely on the wives of the ICS. Gives an account of daily routine. Expresses feeling of ignorance of all aspects of life and work in India. Hearsay on work in Madras Presidency. More about getting outfit together. 6pp.
  4. n.d. Writes about the Indians he has met. Refuses to write second hand comments. Educated Indians. Indian opportunities in the Civil Service. In bungalow with Forest Officer. Bird watching.
  5. 21 January. The Club, Coimbatore. Personal.
  6. 27 January. In camp, Udamalpet. Describes the scenery. Comments on the Indian acquiescence to English despotism. Sees Hindu ceremony. Will stay in division.
  7. 29 January. Club. Coimbatore. About cricket. Narain Rao plays, also C.T. Studd. Learning Tamil. Comments on attitudes and attributes of ICS as distinct from Police, Forestry etc. Comments on one particular judge, – Powers, and on whole European society. Difference of work in north and south of Presidency, and describes country. 3 pp.
  8. 5 February. Club, Coimbatore. Climate, terrain, objective description of countryside and people. To share bungalow with Forest Officer. Comment on Forestry Dept. 2pp.
  9. 14 February. Club, Coimbatore. Comment on new judge, Oldfield, very harsh. Mentions popularity of Rudyard Kipling. lp.
  10. End February. Club, Coimbatore. Had jaundice. Describes characters in case he tried. More on the Collector’s wife and other individuals. Necessity of playing bridge.
  11. 27 February. Club, Coimbatore. Proposed irrigation scheme to dam the R. Bhavani – comments on moveability of Europeans, and on missionaries’ habits. Gives information on food and drink. 2pp.
  12. 4 March. Coimbatore. Moving into bungalow. Meets Marsh, a coffee planter. Feud between Government and planters over terms of leases. Discovers great dislike of Shipley by Forestry and Planters. Stories of executions in Afghanistan. 3pp.
  13. 19 March. Bungalow, Coimbatore. Describes bungalow and Forest Officer, Scot. Management of servants. Bird watching. More on the Collector’s Power and Oldfield. Liquor shops.
  14. 25 March. Description of country at beginning of hot weather. Gardens. Similarity between Madresi and Irish – Servants, characteristics. 2pp.
  15. On tour
  16. 1 April. (Copy – 2pp, with original – 4pp.) Sent rat-catching in Mettupalaiyam to combat plague. Plague regulations: to Calicut to check Treasury. Description of Malabar coast.
  17. April. Madatukulam. Description. Few Europeans. Find a group of R.S.s. Annual audit of village accounts. Attitude towards Kallans. Cites case of land dispute.
  18. East. Sunday, 15 April. Udumalpet. (Copy and original.) Transferred to Pollachi district as head assistant. On tour. Only other Europeans, German Russian Lutheran missionary and wife. Planters. Learning much from Hemingway, the Head Assistant Collector. Other visitors to the bungalow. 3pp.
  19. Encl. copy of a letter from a Station Master to the District Traffic Superintendent, sent as example of humour of English expressions.
  20. Easter Sunday, 15 April. Udumalpet. Copy. Describes in detail the inspection of village.
  21. 30 April. Manupatti. Description of village and countryside
  22. 8 May. Tiruppur. Brief letter of transfers, and new individuals.
  23. 20 May. Pollachi. Copy. Attending district conference. Story of building railway with sappers and coolies.
  24. 27 May. Coimbatore. Description of vaccinating; irrigation and wells; anecdotes descriptive of Indian life. 2pp.
  25. 4 June. Pollachi. Inspection of famine areas, aspects of famine.
  26. 8 June. Tiruppur. More on famine. Village women. 2pp.
  27. 3 July. Madras Club. Taking ICS exams. Madras: beauty and greenness. Strain of famine relief on ICS officials. 2pp.
  28. n.d. Madras Club. Anecdotes descriptive of ICS and Army attitudes. 2pp.
  29. 8 July. Coimbatore. Describes bungalow companion, Scot.
  30. 19 August. Coimbatore. Getting Treasury training and magisterial work. Rains broken. Famine over. Accidents and mishaps. Attitude towards Sessions Judge called Vibart. 2pp.
  31. 26-28 August. Coimbatore. More on hazards of touring – character of an Indian Army major who has been Political Officer in Muscat. More on Vibart. Encloses invitation card. 3pp.
  32. n.d. n.p. H.Q. St. Thomas’ Mount, unpleasant place. On Survey training.
  33. 2-3 September. Coimbatore. Describes amusements; spurious cases. 2pp.
  34. n.d. n.p. Been to Metturpalayam (rat catching again). Learning language of village people. More about his legal cases. 2pp.
  35. 12 September. Coimbatore. Been to Bangalore playing cricket. Description of Bangalore. Plague centre. Jackal hunt.
  36. 17 September. Coimbatore. Preparation for Governor’s visit, (Sir Arthur Lawley). Descriptive vignettes of Bangalore life.
  37. 26 September. Coimbatore. Copy. Governor’s visit over, description of programme, and sidelights on European life. Story of the Forest Officer’s kittens. 4pp.
  38. 30 September. Malabar Club, Calicut. Difference between East and West coast people.
  39. 9 October. Coimbatore. Treasury work. Very revealing attitudes towards Indians and Eurasians, and sidelights on their position vis-a-vis the police, etc.
  40. 17 October. Cruelty to animals in India. Gossip about Winston Churchill and Sir Henry Cotton.
  41. 17 October. Coimbatore. Collector prosecuting the Tahsildar of Palladam. Exposition of case. 2pp.
  42. Encloses letter from a munshi.
  43. 20 October. Coimbatore. Disappearance, of native dyes. Mentions Hannyngton going to Punjab. Insects. Mentions Cecil Dobbs (qv) not getting into ICS. 2pp.
  44. 11 November. Coimbatore. Bribery and corruption, and missionaries. Wiles of petitioners.
  45. 17 December. Coimbatore. Results of drought and monsoon on roads. The Hemingways.


  1. 7 February. Coimbatore. Going to Pollachi.
  2. 19 February. Coimbatore. Hot weather beginning – healthier. Changing to better bungalow. New chaplain.
  3. 25 February. Coimbatore. Criticism of missionary schools. First mention of Swadeshi. Zemindars, ryots, peasant debt. Example of village problems – wells; life insurance societies. 3pp.
  4. 22 March. Avanashi. The interest of learning district work. Difference between attitude of Muslim and Hindu to authority. New I.M.S. tries to stop polluted stream being used. Bad feeling at method. Incidents of Bengali Sessions Judge, Dutt. Comment on Indian Bar. 2pp.
  5. 4 April. Turuppur. Mother’s death. Gives his movements briefly.
  6. 6 April. item 47:212.
  7. 15 May. Gingee, Tindivanam. Describes very big new division in detail. Very few Europeans. Camping in old rock fortress. Money lenders etc, deal in grain. Smuggling and extortion. Numbers of appeals. Collector: Elwin.
  8. 16 June – 47:214
  9. 18 June – 47:215
  10. 22 June – 47:216
  11. 7 July – 47:217
  12. 15 July – 47:218
  13. 5 August – 47:219
  14. 25 August. Tindivanam. (Copy) Describes train journey with two Indians and their conversation on family matters: Indicative of Indian and European attitudes. 2pp.
  15. 1 September. Tindivanam. (Copy) District meeting in Cuddalore. Unfriendly atmosphere. Characters of Elwin and Moberley, Sessions Judge. Christians as witnesses. Land problems.
  16. 15 September – 47:221
  17. 29 September – 47:222
  18. 8 October. Gingee. Sir George Arbuthnott, President of the Madras Club, etc. imprisoned for cheating.
  19. 12 October – 47:224
  20. 25 October. Kandamangalam. Crosses river in flood with help and difficulty. Prevalence of smallpox near Pondicherry. Posted to Trichinopoly as Assistant Collector; Collector – Butterworth.
  21. 3 November – 47:226
  22. 20 November. Has been in Tiruvannamalai for Festival. Plague and cholera precautions. Describes the procession of raths, and intrigues connected with it. 3pp.
  23. 21 November – 47:227
  24. 1 December – 47:229
  25. 10 December – 47:230

Letters 1908

  1. 8-10 February. Trichinopoly and Tinnevelly. Going to Tinnevelly as Assistant Settlement Officer. Describes area round Trichinopoly. Describes Butterworth, the Collector. Meets Tuticorin, D.O. and. Collector of Tinnevelly – Wynch. .Thumbnail sketch of each impressive house – Club. Meets Assistant Superintendent of Police and Harley. Gossip about all of them, and his predecessor. 2pp.
  2. 23 February. Bangalore. SMPR camp. Describes individuals on camp, especially Sessions Judge Pinhey (q.v.). Camp activities. Describes Chadwick, Collector. Trichinopoly Scheme for advisors councils to the Provincial Governments: reaction from Collectors. Discussion of Membership of advisory councils (Maravars) and Shanars.
  3. 10 March. Ambasamudram. Gives account of Europeans in Tinnevelly. Missionaries; converts. Jackson gone to Secretariat – stories of him. Celebration for release of B.C. Pal.
  4. 5 April. Kuttalam-Tenkasi. Part of a letter, pp.3-15 See notebook, Book 2 (48:251) p.148 copy of full letter. Has to revise Tinnevelly District Manual. Brief description of Brahmins, Vellalas, Maravars and Shanars. Account of attempt of caste elevation by Shanars in 1899 and subsequent riots and case of right to enter Maravar temples. Chadwick’s unsuccessful attempt to deal with dacoity in area. Wynch and protection of money from soldiers in Pondicherry. 4pp.
  5. 23 April. A good district, having had good officers. Biographical sketch of Collector, Jackson who is great man. Leader in The Hindu on his departure. Other incidents in district life.
  6. 15 May. Nanguneri. On the Madras coolie – compares Hindu and Chinese and Ireland. Nationalism and the Indian press. Sedition trials at Tuticorin. 3pp.
  7. 29 May, Shermadevi (sic) Sermadevi and Palamcottah, 31 May. Palamcottah for Saturday District Board Meeting. Tampering with witnesses in riot cases. Syro-Christians and R.C.s. Jesuits and land purchase. Other missionaries. Opinions of Sir Ralph (Benson). 2pp.
  8. 21 June. Kudaukulam, Nanguneri taluk. Wasteland of the Teri and coastline to Cape Cormorin. Surprised at strength of R.C. church. People very litigious. Encroachments by R.C. church. 2pp.
  9. 27 July. Adarchani. Daily routine of inspection. B.G. Tilak: character and sentence. Other sedition cases. 2pp.
  10. 2 August. Palamcottah. Work very heavy. Gives long character sketch of Revenue Under Secretary Cardew, who is trusted by Indians, and gives excellent training to subordinates. Training described. Detailed exposition of legal work and case work. 5pp.
  11. 11 August. Srivaikuntam. Brief resume of events, and people met.
  12. 23 August. Palamcottah. Hemingway acting Collector of Madras. Other news of ICS officers – Chadwick, Moloney; measures against sedition cases in Madras increasing. Meets for first time rich middle class Indians with nationalist views but disliking extremism. 2pp.
  13. 27 September. Kuttalam. Tenkasi. Describes disposing of c. 1000 petitions a week. Gives examples of judgments – beginning to understand settlement work. 2pp.
  14. 11 October. Pambuli. Taken a few days off to finish other inspection. Gets thrown from new horse while inspecting temple encroachment. 2pp.
  15. 27 October. Palamcottah. Thinks of joining Masons as a means of meeting high class Indians. Been meeting prosperous peasant proprietors. Attitude towards European so-called necessities, educated Indians and representative institutions.
  16. 3 November Tippanampotti (sic). Part of a letter. T.V. Krishna Iyer dismissed. Arrangements for a CMS service by Chadwick, Carr and Wynch. Describes Godsen’s part in subduing Coimbatore Jail Riot – B.C. Pal’s correspondence with Cotton.
  17. 11 November. Tippanampattari. Coimbatore Jail riot. Sentences on Pillai and Siva.
  18. 30 December. Doveton House, Nungumbankum, Madras. General gossip about people in India. Hopes to go on leave in July 1909.

Letters 1909

  1. 11 January. Alwar Kurichy, Ambasamudram. Rough Patta work ending back in settlement. Number of petitions heard – average 300 per village.
  2. 19-21 January. Mel Chevval, Ambasamudram. Gives example of faction in rich Brahmin village in R.P. work. Attitudes to Morley reforms.
  3. 26 January. Palamcottah. Inveighs against missionaries’ Sabbatarianism.
  4. 5 February. Shermadivi (sic) Sermadevi. Very hard work of R.P. work to come in Srivaikuntam in September. 250 petitions a day his record.
  5. 7 March. Palamcottah. R.P. camps over until return from leave. . Srivaikuntam and Nanguneri taluks to come. No Bangalore camp. Opinion of retired N.C.O.’s in India. Discusses implementation of new legislative councils, the reforms, and Indian potential for filling posts. Davidson, new Collector. Koilpatti for agricultural show: meeting Castle Stuart Stuart member of the BR and head of Settlement etc. 3pp.
  6. 12 March. Palamcottah. On holiday. Awaiting result of inquiry into Guntur riot and D.P. Kershopht, a Parsee. Attitude towards Indian ICS. Gossip about one of ‘fishing fleet’. 3pp.
  7. 29 March. Ambasamudrum. Personal. Inveighs against Brahmins.
  8. 10 April. Palamcottah. Incident of a candidate being refused for ICS. Preparing for leave. 2pp.
  9. 16 April. Alantha, Ottapudaram. Account of Sir Ralph Benson’s influence in Indian appointments. Indians and higher administrative appointments. Chidambaram Pillai’s appeal – Pinhey’s message from Morley about his judgment on Pillai’s case. Tuticorin vakilboycotted for being anti-sedition. 2pp.
  10. 24 April. Palamcottah. Leave from 23 June. Has been at H.Q., only seven hours office work a day. More opinion on Morley’s reforms. Cases and convictions – Srinivasir Rao’s appointment.
  11. 2 May. Maramangalam, Srivaikuntam. Inspection irrigation at mouth of R. Tambraparni. Describes the surrounding country. News about misconduct of Deputy Collector Suntaram Shastry.
  12. 9 May. Palamcottah. Taking charge from Chadwick on leave. Extraordinary four day storm. Myer’s position with regard to jobs in Madras. Penalty for Kershapht.
  13. 16 May. Sengalpodai, Ottapudaram. Account of bad journey to see some Sub-Revenue Inspectors in which servants, food, clothes, etc. take wrong way. Has to return to SRI’s and eat Indian food. Comment on this – four days before finds things again. 4pp.
  14. 29 May. Srivaikuntam. Comments on Horne’s report of Gunter riots.
  15. 13 June. Trichendur. Describes town. Just about to go on leave.
  16. 3 September. S.S. Staffordshire. Return voyage to India.
  17. 27 September. Tinnevelly Bridge. Living very comfortably before going on Inspection and RP work.
  18. 4 October. Iruvappapuram. Inspecting irrigation extensions. Describes complex police case in Srivaikuntam. Stories of the Shanar Moravar riots of 1899. Strain of ICS life. Account of interview between influential rich Hindu in district and Chadwick indicative of type of work required of ICS officer, involving individual and communal disputes. 5pp.
  19. 17 October. Kaliyavur. On first RP camp – Trials through servants, and monsoon. Wynch and Chadwick as Collectors. Been put up for Acting District Magistrate, Coorg – Notes on Coorg. 2pp.
  20. 9 November. Valanadu. Just finished 400th petition. More to come. Very tired.
  21. Part of letter n.p. n.d. which describes two of his office staff. Palamcottah Technical School changed over to being a fitters shop run on commercial lines. No good before. Means increase in knowledge of engines for a number of Indians.
  22. 4 December. Palamcottah. Opinion of tea-planters in Ceylon. Working with the Collector Davidson – very able. Opinion of ryots. Mentions Decentralization Commission’s report, and preparation of the voters’ lists for Morley scheme – Character sketches of two Brahmins indicative of diverse Indian characteristics. 3pp.
  23. In train, Manyachi. Back at R.P. work. Comment on contrasts of work and. pay between Indians and English. Nature and reasons for number of petitions in R.P.
  24. 24 December. Mudittanandel. Produced 957 petitions. Case of bribery. Comment on first elections under Morley scheme.


  1. 15 January. Pondicherry. Personal. Not going to Coorg. Glad to stay with Davidson and Chadwick. Sketch of Davidson’s character and attitude towards administration.
  2. 24 January. Madura. In volunteer training camp – issued with long rifles. 2pp.
  3. 27 February. Nazareth. R.P. work coming to an end. Nazareth big Christian centre, rich and wicked. Forest Department. trying to redeem the Teri. Comments favourably on Curzon ‘s administration compared with reforms of Morley and Minto. Comment on Minto, Curzon and the police.
  4. 14 March. Palamcottah. Enteric; snipe shooting; example of false evidence in murder case. 2pp.
  5. 10 April. Tinnevelly. On leave in Travancore jungle shooting with tea-planter, Knight. Meets Hemingway. Descriptions of Knight and uncle. Account of unscrupulous measures taken during coffee slump, and rebuilding fortune. Detailed description of character and personal life of Knight. Arrangements for Eurasian children in R.C. missions, – attitude of R.C. missionaries. Character of acting Collector Ashe, contrast of careless and careful Collector and consequence. 7pp.
  6. 30 May. Nanguneri. Replies to brother’s various remarks on (1) Ghose and press censorship. Example of Tilak’s influence on Mahratta national consciousness in villages. (2) Indian Government and the Clubs – Attitude to Indian IMS. Social grievances felt by educated Hindus – Ideas (of equality) spreading, European still preferred for position of authority. Industrialization: education: comparison of Irish and Indian. Character of Tilak: opinion of Chedamkaram Pillai and Hyder Naik. Poverty. Difference in attitude towards concept of justice between Indian and European. Government fear of unpopularity; desire for revenue. 6pp.
  7. 7 June. Valliyur. Monsoon broken. Nanguneri near famine.
  8. 10 June. Palavur. Ten miles from Cape Cormorin. Attitudes of Tamils to situations. Incident in. Syro Christian church. Levinge – subcollector from 1840 – and his influence in area. Account of temple feuds. 3pp.
  9. 11 June. Kudangulam. Very brief description of tree-climbing caste (Nadirs).
  10. 16 June. Radhapuram. Near famine in Nanguneri after five year drought. Disaster prevented by workers going to Ceylon on tea plantations. Meets example of failed coffee planter who has to ‘ work on inspecting salt and abkari. Hailey’s comet gone, people calm about it. Examples of villagers’ argument against rents.
  11. 16 June. Nanguneri. Describes Chadwick’s character in detail. Contrasts poor Burmese Administration with Indian, particularly in relationship between Secretatiat and District. Gives example of liberality of Indian administration. Discusses retirement of Bradley and Atkinson, two senior men in Madras Service, because of Morley’s criticism of them.
  12. 8 July., Tulupparpatty. Davidson going. Ashe succeeds. New Sessions judge. Opinion of people in Taluk of Srivaikuntam.
  13. 24 July. Palamcottah. Failure of S.W. monsoon. Hopes for new ICS recruit from T.C.D. Remarks on three Indians invited to farewell dinner at club. Has read good article by B.C. Pal.
  14. 6 September. Idayangudy. Near the sea: Hindu diet – coffee drinking started ten years before. Village problems and cases. Difficulty over last report with Madras Government because of Bradley’s retirement. Remarks on ICS training.
  15. 9 September. Idayangudy. Detailed description of terrain.
  16. 12 September. Pulimankulam. Met by village Munsif – account of family. Rich village. Sees beef-steak bird and huge butterflies.
  17. 19 September. Palamcottah. Sends photographs of settlement group and descriptions of J.R. Krishnamani, an Indian Christian also Tampoe who went to Clare College, Cambridge. Other remarks on personalities. Encloses letter. 3pp.
  18. 26 September. Palamcottah. Starting for R.P. campaign. Personal
  19. 2 October. Nanguneri. Encounter with an American Lutheran missionary. 5pp.
  20. 5 October. Nanguneri. Account of the lease of South Indian Railway, and case of cancellation of technical training scheme in conjunction with private company under Chatterton- Appointment of Clark. 3pp.
  21. 18 October. Danapparkulam. Account of the R.C. mission at Vadakkankulam and Fr. Caussanel, S.J. who was deposed from Tunnevelly mission for buying land with bad titles, and later expelling Syro-Christians from Kuttankuli where he had been sent. Other factions concerned with an Iyengar Brahmin Mut.
  22. 29 October. Kuttankuli. Anxiety over monsoon. No need for relief work with Ceylon and Travancore wanting labour. Comment on Kershosk’s retirement. 2pp.
  23. 11 November. Palamcottah. Describes character of A. Castle Stuart Stuart, CSI, very popular with Indians.
  24. 9 December. Idayankudi. Nearly finished Nanguneri R.P.


  1. 10 January. Palamcottah. Nothing of interest. lp.
  2. 30 January. Mulaikaraipatti. Comments on new assistant (Matheson). lp.
  3. 6 February. Nanguneri. About books. Further comment on Matheson ‘product of the new democracy’; type of new recruits for ICS (2pp missing). Comment on mixture in ICS life. (7pp, 1-3, 6, 7.) Encl. letter from F.H.L. Hemingway in Mangalore 31 January 1911. Comments on Mathesonas type of new recruit, and attitude to Indians; Indian recruitment to service. 6pp.
  4. 15 February. Madras Club. In Madras – work because of Legislative Council. Going to Ooty. Mentions by name Davidson, Butterworth, Hill.
  5. 1 March. Madras Club. Remarks on Executive Council, and V. Krishnaswamy (member). Problem of calling on him. Story of starting Swadeshi industries. Secretariat work. Comment on seniors, Butterworth, Atkinson, Meyer.
  6. 28 March. Gives outline of his secretariat work. Sir Harold Stuart: myth surrounding Sir Gabriel Stokes.
  7. 8 May. (Ootacamund). Secretariat work – dislikes the work – inhuman. Opium problem. Analyses the personnel in Government from political standpoint. Opinion of PWD and other departments, and head of educational department.
  8. 8 May. (Ootacamund). Comments on pamphlets on opium, and the opium trade and effects of its suppression, and the ten year agreement with China. Rumour of orders against spending money on famine relief. Asks about Co-operative credit banks. 4pp.
  9. 4 June. Ootacamund. Description of Ooty’s flora and scenery. 2pp.
  10. 2 July. Ootacamund. Secretariat life easier than District life. Comment on quality of Indian ICS’s and Indian Members of Council. Mentions murder of Ashe. 2pp.
  11. 16 July. Ootacamund. Description of two unusual hunts. Comment on addition to staff C.W.E. Cotton: J.J. Cotton, son of Sir Henry Cotton: sidelights on club life and customs. 2pp.
  12. 25 July. Ootacamund. Man-eating tiger shot. Sidelights on Ooty society.
  13. 1 August. Ootacamund. King’s visit and durbar. Sidelights on social attitudes. Ooty flora: new Governor – character of present governor. 2pp.
  14. 16 August. Ootacamund. Comments on Ooty society and individuals especially Cotton, Knapp and Krishnaswamy. 2pp.
  15. 22 August. Ootacamund. Some amusing anecdotes. Personal.
  16. 29 August. Ootacamund. Account of Cases: bad faith over an irrigation project in a small state: boundary dispute: water dispute – examples of potential wars suppressed by Pax Britannica. Sees in Secretariat impossibility of. reconciling Indians and English Largely because of Army attitude. 3pp.
  17. 5 September. Ootacamund. Further remarks on English strikes and English politics. Prophecies 30 years more British rule in India. Labour movement product of education. Germans ready to fight England. Realises the deep class divisions in England from meeting soldiers in Ootacamund, and observations of public school products. Influence of religion in Anglo-India. Question of why we hold India. 3pp.
  18. 12 September. Ootacamund. Dislikes Under Secretary’s work.
  19. 21 November. Madras Club. Comment on new Governor, Sir Thomas Gibson Carmichael; administration during the Durbar.
  20. 13 December. Tinnevelly pearl fisheries – sidelights on attitudes, interests and method of work.